Week 3 – Assignment 1 The Dual-Language Dilemma [WLOs: 1, 4] [CLOs: 1, 2]

Week 3 – Assignment 1

The Dual-Language Dilemma

[WLOs: 1, 4] [CLOs: 1, 2]

To prepare for this assignment,

  • Read the example of Erin’s language development at the beginning of Chapter 9;
  • Complete the Language Development Self-Check;
  • Read Many Languages, One Classroom (Oliva-Olson, Espinosa, Hayslip, and Magruder, 2018); and
  • Find at least one scholarly, peer-reviewed, or other credible source of information on dual-language learning.

As highlighted in this week’s readings, approximately 20% of U.S. children speak a language other than English (Berk, 2013). In fact, nearly 40 states reported districts that received Title III funding who were implementing at least one dual-language program in the 2012 to 2013 school year (U.S. Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition, 2015). Consequently, early childhood professionals need to understand the progression of language development for typically developing children as well as that of children who are dual-language learners.

With that in mind, imagine that you are an early educator working in a toddler classroom preparing for Parent and Teacher conferences, and Erin—described in Chapter 9—is in your class. It’s been your practice to write a developmental summary to collect your thoughts in anticipation of the conversation you will have with each family. In this developmental summary, reflect on how you will discuss Erin’s language development given that her parents have decided to teach Erin both English and Spanish.

Think about and develop a two- to three-page essay on the dual-language dilemma supported with research findings from your text and at least one additional credible resource.  Address the following:

  • Develop a research-based argument on whether it wise or unwise for Marilyn and Oscar to promote bilingualism.
  • Discuss Erin’s mixing of the two languages, indicating if it is the result of confusion or something else.
    • Outline what Erin’s family should expect regarding the impact of dual-language learning on her academic achievement.
  • Explain how the trajectory of language development (i.e., phonological, semantic, grammatical, and pragmatic) is different when students are learning more than one language.
  • Compare how the age at which a child learns a second language impacts the course of language development.

The Dual Language Dilemma Assignment

  • Must be two to three pages in length.
    • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

Required Resources

Text

Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

  • Chapter 6: Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives
  • Chapter 7: Cognitive Development: An Information-Processing Perspective
  • Chapter 9: Language Development

Article

Oliva-Olson, C., Espinosa, L. M., Hayslip, W., & Magruder, E. S. (2018/2019). Many languages, one classroom. Teaching Young Children, 12(2), 4-7. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/yc

  • The full-text version of this article is available through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library. This article provides information about effective strategies for teaching in classrooms with children who speak multiple languages and will assist you in your Dual-Language Dilemma assignment this week.

Multimedia

Virtual Lab School. (n.d.). Cognitive development: Infant block play (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from https://stream.virtuallabschool.org/cognitive/3545/3545-480.mp4

  • This video shows infants playing with blocks and is required to complete your Analyzing Children’s Cognitive Development discussion this week.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist.
    Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)

Web Page

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, February 22). Basic Information (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/facts.html

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Difficult Behavior

Difficult students can be found in both the online environment and in traditional college classrooms. Left unchecked, troublesome behavior is likely to become increasingly distracting as a semester progresses. Managed well, difficult behaviors provide opportunities to teach the offending student appropriate skills to be successful in college and in life. Managed poorly, these behaviors can lead to low performance evaluations and a poor learning environment for all students.

For this week’s assignment, you will demonstrate your potential for working with—instead of against—students with difficult behavior. In a word document, video or slide presentation or another layout of your choosing, address all the required topics listed below. Although there is no page or length requirement for this assignment to allow creative freedom, make sure that you have fully addressed all the required topics, using the textbook and at least two additional source to support your answers. Be sure to cite your sources appropriately both in-text and separate reference page in APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Content:

  • Explain how to recognize and address the earliest stage of developing problems using research for supporting evidence.
  • Describe appropriate intervention strategies for different styles of behavior using in-text citations to support your writing.
  • Identify the foundational theory behind the intervention strategies for difficult and unmotivated students.
  • List and Explain the Do’s and don’ts of working with frustrated, unmotivated students.
  • Summarize the process for making referrals to appropriate campus resources.

Written Communication:

  • Syntax and Mechanics: Exhibit meticulous use of grammar, spelling, organization, and usage throughout your submission.
  • Source Requirement: Reference at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook in order to provide compelling evidence to support your ideas.
  • APA format: All in text citations, page format and references must be written in APA 6th edition format.

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Fostering Language Development

Fostering Language Development

“Language development is among the most important tasks of the first five years of a child’s life” (Language Development, n.d.). In fact, language acquisition is a key component to learning across each domain of development. As early childhood educators, we are charged with the important task of not only fostering language development, but also of monitoring children’s progress, planning appropriate supports, and making accommodations when necessary. With the complexity of language acquisition and our varied roles within this system, it is imperative that we plan for, and acquire strategies to effectively promote language development in our students. As more and more children are diagnosed each year with speech delays and our population of English Language Learners is growing, we must come to our educational settings ready to confront this important domain of development. For this discussion you will choose a specific age-range (0-2, 3-5, 6-8), as well as which area of language development you would like to research and plan for.  Choose from the options below:

  • Children with speech delays
  • English Language Learner (ELL)

Initial Post: Once you have decided upon the specific area of language for your focus, you will create a fact sheet to be used within your education setting. To create your fact sheet you will need to do the following:

  • Locate one recent (within five years) scholarly article with research-based strategies for fostering language development in an early childhood classroom.
  • Using both the article and your textbook, you will create a fact sheet that can be used as a guide in a classroom or school. Your fact sheet should be no more than two pages in length and should include the following:
    • The language milestones for the age range you chose (Table 2.1 from your course text).
    • The characteristics of and influences surrounding the area of language you chose (i.e. culture, socio-economic influences, prevalence, etc.).
    • Explain at least four current, research-based strategies that can be used within a classroom setting.  You are required to support each of your strategies from your chosen research articles.
    • Explain at least two current, research-based strategies for supporting families with children with these language concerns. You are required to support each of your strategies from your chosen research article and textbook.
  • Enhance the visual appeal of your fact sheet by including a minimum of three related images. As a suggestion, you can also include a page border, creative header, etc.
  • You will create your fact sheet in Word, Publisher or any other acceptable format, and then save it as a PDF for submission.

Information as needed:

 

2.2 Understanding Families

Teachers in the United States work with a wide range of families. In order to communicate effectively with families, it is important to have anunderstanding of what family means to the children we serve.

Family Diversity

Just as each child is unique, so, too, is each family, with its own dynamics, psychology, and ways of being (R. M. Barrera, 2001; Mendoza etal., 2003). Our job is to understand the child’s family culture and to support it as best we can. When we meet with families for the first time,it is important to ask questions as well as offer information. By asking for input, we convey to families that their experiences are valued andan essential part of their child’s education. In this way, teachers and families can work together as a team to provide the best possibleenvironment for the child.

Teachers must find out what each child’s family situation is from the start. Gone are the days when the typical family consisted of abreadwinning father who was married to a stay-at-home, child-rearing mother: Only 13% of all families in the United States fit that model,and three out of five preschoolers have their mother in the labor force (Cohany & Sok, 2007; NACCRRA, 2011; U.S. Census Bureau, 2011c).Families in the United States reflect the same diversity that is seen throughout our society. It behooves early childhood professionals toapproach children’s families with an open mind and an open heart, with no preconceived notions about what a proper family should be.

As Figure2.1 shows, teachers should be prepared to work with children who live in all sorts of family situations. Children today often comefrom non-traditional families that can be headed by a single parent, a grandparent, or a teenager. Many children have lesbian, gay,transgendered, or same-sex parents. Of the 646,464 same-sex couples counted in the 2010 census, one-fourth are raising children underthe age of 18 (Gates & Cooke, 2011; James, 2011; U.S. Census Bureau, 2011b). To be effective with all the children in our care, we mustwelcome each family with openness and respect, even if the family’s structure is different from our own.

Figure2.1 Key facts about American families and children today

image

Sources: American Community Survey 2006–2010, 5-Year Estimates, 2011a, Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; The State of America’sChildren Yearbook, 2004, 2010, Washington, DC: Children’s Defense Fund; United States Census 2010, 2011a, Washington, DC: U.S. CensusBureau; Who’s Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements Spring 2010, 2011b, Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

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Formal & Informal Assessment

In a 15-20 slide PowerPoint presentation to inform your colleagues about the assessment and placement process.

Describe the content and use of the Arizona English Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA) in guiding ELL instruction. How do AZELLA score reports facilitate achievement among ELLs? Compare the use of the AZELLA to the assessment and placement process in NY State.  How does the assessment and placement process in your state facilitate achievement among ELLs?

  1. What are the indicators of exceptionality a classroom teacher should look for when a student also has a language barrier?
  2. How do informal and formal assessment results factor into placement?
  3. What role do parents and teachers have in placement?
  4. What are some primary factors that are exhibited in underachievement that may not necessarily signal special education needs?
  5. How are changes among individual ELL proficiency levels over the course of the school year accounted for?
  6. How are diagnostic, formative, and summative assessments integrated for ELLs in mainstream classrooms?
  7. What are the benefits of the SIOP protocol for native English speakers as well as those for whom English is an additional language?

Support your presentation with at least three scholarly resources.

Include presenter’s notes, a title slide, and a reference slide.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using the documentation guidelines found in the APA Style Guide,

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Parent Newsletter

Assessments are used for many different purposes in the K‐12 educational setting. For example, assessments are used during classroom instruction to measure students’ learning related to the academic content, and different assessments are used to measure students’ overall cognitive, physical, or social‐emotional abilities. Regardless of the assessment type, there are specific terms that are often used related to assessments. It is often the responsibility of the special education teacher to explain assessment terminology to families.

Understanding the terminology used in the formal assessment of students who have or may have a disability is a vital first step for collaboration with families. Having such knowledge will assist families in understanding the uses and limitations of specified assessments. Teachers are then able to collaborate and consult with families in a productive manner to inform student‐based decision making.

Student assessment results from formal, standardized assessment tools are often statistically based and can be very difficult for families to understand.

Write a 500‐750 word article to post on the parent page of the school’s website explaining assessment methods and the basics of statistics used in formal adaptive behavior assessments. The article should be creative and accurately explain how to read and understand assessment results by including the following:

  • Purpose, definition, and two examples of adaptive behavior assessments
  • Definition of six specialized assessment terms both of a content and statistical nature including an explanatory example of each used in formal adaptive behavior assessments
  • Explanation of at least two limitations of standardized assessments, such as bias in questionnaires, subjectivity, utility, psychometric support, etc.
  • Description of the consultative role of the special educator in helping parents/guardians understand the process of assessments and related terminology

Use easy‐to‐understand language and examples of assessment results with graphs, diagrams, and pictures as needed.

Support your findings with 2‐3 scholarly resources.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion

  • attachment

    Rub2.docx

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Your task is to consider how you might train these students to man the phone bank, using critical thinking skills, and most importantly, how you, as the trainer, would assess – based on what we have learned this term – that they are able to do this. The first part of the paper can be an introduction to the issues of critical thinking and assessment, followed by your specific training and assessment plan. Use scholarly sources only.

Scenario: What follows are the essential facts. You may create the balance as you develop your plan: You live in a community facing a debate over whether to pass a 1% 30-year sales tax to bring a new football team to your town and to help build a stadium in which to house that team.  The residents of your community fall into several camps and express deep beliefs and opinions about this volatile issue. You have been asked by the mayor of your city to work with the phone bank chairman for a series of one-hour call-in and town hall-type meetings concerning the highly emotional and strongly divided topic of growth. As a visible educational leader in the community, you have been assigned to select and train a team of 20 local high school and college student volunteers in handling the phones and responding to residents calling in with questions and comments for the mayor during each meeting. The students will need to be knowledgeable, responsive, polite, and helpful to the callers. Create and design a plan to train the students so that they are able to employ critical thinking and problem solving skills during the phone calls. They may be faced with a wide range of questions and emotions from callers. Explain and demonstrate how you will know and be able to assess that the students are capable of employing these critical thinking and problem solving skills following training

As the assignment says: Your task is to consider how you might train these students to man the phone bank, using critical thinking skills, and most importantly, how you, as the trainer, would assess – based on what we have learned this term –  that they are able to do this. The first part of the paper can be an introduction to the issues of critical thinking and assessment, followed by your specific training and assessment plan.  Use scholarly sources only.

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discussion questions: Experience with Support Personnel

Discussion 1

Experience with Support Personnel

Support personnel can assist children with disabilities in the school setting by enabling each child to realize their potential. Discuss the support personnel you have observed in the classroom. What were their roles, and to what extent did they work collaboratively with the classroom teacher? Did you see a need for further support?

Discussion 2

Meaningful Support for Specific Needs

Think about your classroom observation. Pick a specific disability and discuss how support personnel can help the classroom teacher provide a meaningful and relevant learning environment for a student with this disability.

Discussion 3

 

Curriculum Based Assessments

The information gathered from (CBA) should add to an understanding of a child’s stage of development, provide information to make informed instructional decisions, and connect to developmentally appropriate learning goals.

Based on your Web search, what information will the CBA you researched allow you to gather? What are the strengths and limitations of this type of information?

Discussion 4

Progress Monitoring and Instruction

School psychologists perform assessments that compare a child to others of similar age and grade level. CBA focuses on the curriculum in the classroom, and thus compares a child to him or herself–how a child is performing this week compared to last week, and whether he or she is making progress based on the interventions you are using.

Discuss how these CBAs can direct and drive instruction.

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SIOP

Teachers who use the SIOP Model effectively plan, write, and teach their lessons while connecting them to the standards and accommodating for different ELP levels.

After reading the “SIOP Teaching Case Study,” record each of the SIOP components and at least two features from each component on the “SIOP Teaching Model” worksheet.

The features for each component include:

  • Lesson Preparation: Content and language objectives, content concepts appropriate for age, supplementary materials used, adaptation of content for all student proficiency levels, meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts with language practice.
  • Building Background: Concepts linked to students’ background experiences, links explicitly made between past learning and new concepts, key vocabulary emphasized.
  • Comprehensible Input: Speech appropriate for students’ proficiency levels, clear explanation of academic tasks, and variety of techniques to make content concepts clear
  • Strategies: Ample opportunities for students to use learning strategies, scaffolding techniques consistently used, a variety of questions or tasks the promote higher‐order thinking.
  • Interaction:  Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion, grouping configurations support language and content objectives, sufficient wait time for student responses, ample opportunity for students to clarify key concepts.
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    ELPChart.docx
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EDU 590 Module 2 Coursework For Fortified

Module 2 Case
Reflect upon the core coursework included in your program of study. Review the program learning outcomes and assess your preparation, experience, and accomplishments related to the learning outcomes.

Case Assignment

The Master of Education Program requires the completion of five core classes. Reflect on the five courses you have taken to complete your degree and explain the value of each course for your career or learning goals.

Next, assess your preparation, experience, and/or professional practice accomplishments related to each of the program learning outcomes.

It is recommended that you structure your paper using this outline:

  1. Introduction (1/2 page)
    1. Brief summary of your professional background when you entered the program.
    2. Brief summary of your current professional background.
  2. Career Goals (or Learning Goals if you do not currently work in education) (1/2 page)
    1. Brief summary of your career goal(s)
    2. Describe how each course has contributed to your career goal(s)
  3. Preparation, Experience and Accomplishments (2 – 3 pages)
    1. Understand and apply the social, economic, and political context of the community to influence professional practice as it relates to student success.
    2. Create an educational organization and community that fosters professional development relationships to support the success of all learners.
    3. Apply theories of organizational management, strategic decision making, and leadership principles to establish an effective, safe, efficient, and successful learning environment.
    4. Promote and plan for school improvement through dynamic assessment based on current and relevant research and scholarship.
    5. Analyze and apply legal and ethical issues that arise in education practices and institutions.
    6. Recognize and evaluate sources of diversity and inequity related to the needs of marginalized individuals or populations.
  4. Conclusion (1/4 page)
    1. Summary statement of your experience in the program.

Assignment Expectations

MAED Case Grading Rubric

Assignment-Driven Criteria (23 points): Demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way.

Critical Thinking (9 points): Demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem. Viewpoints and assumptions of experts are analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated. Conclusions are logically presented with appropriate rationale.

Scholarly Writing (4 points): Demonstrates mastery and proficiency in scholarly written communication to an appropriately specialized audience.

Quality of References and Assignment Organization (6 points): Demonstrates mastery using relevant and quality sources and uses appropriate, relevant, and compelling content to support ideas, convey understanding of the topic and shape the whole work.

Citing Sources (3 points): Demonstrates mastery using in-text citations of sources and properly format full source information in the reference list (bibliography).

Timeliness (5 points): Assignment submitted on time or collaborated with professor for an approved extension before the module due date.

Module 2 SLP:

 

In the Session Long Project (SLP), the goal is to complete an 7- to 9-page paper on a topic of interest that is directly related to your concentration. There are four components to the SLP, and you will complete one component within each module.

Students are expected to incorporate any instructor feedback into each assignment. Instructor feedback received on your SLP 1 should be incorporated into your SLP 2.

SLP Assignment

SLP 1 included:

  1. Introduction: Identify the Topic (1 page)
  2. Statement of the Problem (1/2 page)
  3. Guiding Question(s) and Strategy (1 page)
  4. Reference List

SLP 2 includes:

  1. Introduction: Identify the Topic (revised)
  2. Statement of the Problem (revised)
  3. Guiding Question(s) and Strategy (revised)
  4. Literature Review (3 – 4 pages)
  5. Reference List

Conduct a literature review of 8 or more scholarly articles related to the topic/issue you have identified for your SLP. Please do not confuse a literature review with an annotated bibliography (a list of references). The literature review should be a discussion of the related literature, organized by topic or themes (not a “list” of the articles).

A literature review includes synthesis, analysis, and critique of scholarly articles, textbooks, or other sources.

There is a helpful Module 2 reading that can guide you through the development of a literature review:

Chapter 5: Analyzing and categorizing the Literature Critically
Chapter 6: The Structure of the Literature Review

Oliver, P. (2012). Succeeding with Your Literature Review: A Handbook for Students. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education

SLP Assignment Expectations

MAED SLP Grading Rubric

Assignment-Driven Criteria (10 points): Demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way.

Critical Thinking (6 points): Demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem. Viewpoints and assumptions of experts are analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated. Conclusions are logically presented with appropriate rationale.

Scholarly Writing (3 points): Demonstrates mastery and proficiency in scholarly written communication to an appropriately specialized audience.

Quality of References and Assignment Organization (3 points): Demonstrates mastery using relevant and quality sources and uses appropriate, relevant, and compelling content to support ideas, convey understanding of the topic, and shape the whole work.

Citing Sources (3 points): Demonstrates mastery using in-text citations of sources and properly format full source information in the reference list (bibliography).

Timeliness (5 points): Assignment submitted on time or collaborated with professor for an approved extension before the module due date.

Module 2 Discussion:

Read Chapter 6: Transformation Through Educational Experiences in the Stories of Transformative Learning text by Kroth and Cranton (2014). What role has transformative learning played in your ability to complete the Master of Education Program? What is the role of transformative learning for your students? Within your professional practice as an educator or educational leader, how will you foster transformative learning? Respond to at least 3 classmates’ posts.

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Differences In Cerebral Laterality (Discussion)

There are known differences in cerebral laterality between males and females. Although our brains are unique, some believe it is politically incorrect to say there are gender differences while others assert that male and female brains are different.  For some educators and policy makers, it’s easy choice; we should have same-sex schools.  For others, brain-based research raises questions about instructional design, teacher qualifications, class size, and instructional strategies. This discussion has three parts, so be sure to note the required reflection near the end of the week. Two of the recommend resources may help you to contribute to this discussion: Salomone (2007) and Gurian, Henley, & Trueman (2001). Both of these resources are available in ebrary through the Ashford Library.
Initial post: Describe the gender-based differences in the brain’s executive processes during problem solving and critical thinking.  Then, based on your debate group assigned below, use the course materials and at least one other scholarly source from the Ashford Library (Links to an external site.) to justify whether these differences dictate a need to change our educational policies and teaching strategies.
Debate Grouping (by the first letter of the last name):

  • M- Z: Against a change in our educational policies and teaching strategies

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