Explain the process of cancer, the effects on the human body, the various types, and the risk factors involved

 
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Unit II Homework
Cancer and Genetics
Introduction
In order for organisms to grow, repair, maintain, and reproduce, cells undergo cell division. Sometimes, cells uncontrollably divide, resulting in cancer. In the first part of the Cancer and Cell Division Lab, you will learn about normal cell division and will compare it to cell division that occurs in cancer cells. You will then visit a website to find out more information about cancer. You will learn why it occurs, why it kills, and new treatments that are being tested and used to treat cancer.
Objectives
1. Explain the process of cancer, the effects on the human body, the various types, and the risk factors involved.
2. Explain various treatments for cancer.
3. Explain the various stages of mitosis.
Materials
No extra materials will be required to complete this lab other than internet service.
Directions
· Go to the following website: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_23/BL_23.html
· Follow the steps under the PROCEDURE section.
· Type all answers directly on the data sheet.
· Select Save As, and save this document using your last name and student ID as the file name.
· Upload the data sheet as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf file when you are finished.
While viewing the video, answer the following questions. Total: 8 points
1. In which stage of cell division is the DNA copied? (4 points)
 
2. During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the middle? (4 points)
 
After viewing the video, click on the Information tab in the bottom right corner. Answer the following questions. Total: 12 points
1. In which of the cancer types listed, are males not at risk of developing? (4 points)
 
2. Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for which type of cancer listed? (4 points)
 
3. The risk for which type of cancer increases after the age of 55? (4 points)
 
Continue following the directions under the PROCEDURE section, and complete the following table. Total: 40 points

Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase % of Cells Dividing % of Cells at rest
Normal Lungs
Cancerous Lungs
Normal Stomach
Cancerous Stomach
Normal Ovary
Cancerous Ovary
 
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Where do we get glucose from?

 
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Name Ashley Waddy____________________
Biology 1111.06__________________

Chapter 7 Assignment

Worth 100 Points
Directions: Answer the following questions and/or statements below regarding understanding cellular respiration. Don’t forget to use the class format in answering these questions on the assignment. After you have completed the document, submit it in the appropriate dropbox. More than one submission will result in a 10-point penalty. Do not edit the document. The title along with the directions and questions must be included to avoid the 15-point penalty applied to the overall grade. Again, do not edit the document and add your answers to the original document. Remember, the submissions of pdf are not allowed in this class. If a pdf is submitted, you will receive a zero for the assignment for not following directions. Again, all work again should be placed in the dropbox. Also, the document that you submit should be a Microsoft Word Document. If your document is not a Microsoft Word Document, you will not receive any credit for the assignment. NO concessions will be given for late work, resubmissions, or concessions. Again, don’t forget that your answers should be written in the class template and to provide everything that is required for an assignment to avoid penalties. Check your syllabus regarding what is required for all activities
1. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. Circle the reactants and underline the products. C6H12O6 + 6O2 ———— 6CO2
2. Where in the cell does cellular respiration occur? It occurs in all the cells body and it is the reason we breathe.
3. Label the parts of the mitochondria – outer membrane, inner membrane, cristae (folds on the inner membrane). Type answer in the box.
4. Where do we get glucose from?
5. What gas combines with glucose in order for glucose to break down?
6. What type of organisms carry out cellular respiration?
7. What does cellular respiration produce for our cells?
8. Where is the energy in glucose stored?
9. What do humans & animals do with the CO2 produced when glucose breaks down?
10. What do plants do with the CO2 produced during cellular respiration?
11. What is the function of the mitochondria?
12. What do we do with the H2O produced when glucose breaks down?
13. What do plants do with the H2O they produce during cellular respiration?
14. What is energy? What is the energy current of the cell? What is energy used for in eukaryotic cells. Be specific. This answer must have at least 5 sentences in order to receive credit.
15. What does glycolysis mean?
16. Where in the cell does glycolysis occur? In the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria, is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate.
17. What is glucose broken down into during glycolysis?
18. Does glycolysis need/require O2?
19. Is glycolysis an anaerobic or aerobic process?
20. Where do the ATP’s that start glycolysis (stage 1) come from?
21. What’s the function of the Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain (stage 2)?
22. What does fermentation mean? It is the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, resulting in the production of two ATP per glucose ensures that ATP is available for cellular processes.
23. Name the 2 types of fermentation. Acholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
24. What organisms carry out alcohol fermentation?
25. Does alcohol fermentation require oxygen?
26. Why does bread dough rise? Explain this process with your understanding of fermentation. This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
27. After we exercise strenuously our muscles are sore. Why? This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
28. Does lactic acid fermentation require oxygen?
29. Does cellular respiration require oxygen?
30. How often does cellular respiration occur in our bodies?
31. Explain the preparatory reaction and its purpose in cellular respiration. This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
32. How many ATP are produced in the Citric Acid Cycle? 6NAD+
33. What is the total amount of ATP produced in Glycolysis?
34. How many times does the Citric Acid Cycle turn to produce 6 NADH?
35. Explain the why ATP Synthase Complex is required in Cellular Respiration. This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
36. What are the coenzymes that are used in cellular respiration?
37. Explain why fats produce more ATP than a glucose molecule. This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
38. ATP Synthase Complex is found in which reaction that is a part of cellular respiration?
39. Why are H+ ions important for the output of cellular respiration? This answer must have at least 5 sentences to receive credit.
40. Tell one interesting thing that you learned about cellular respiration in chapter 7. This answer must have at least 5 sentences.
Inner membrane
Outer membrane
Cristae

 
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How to recognize poison oak

 
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Part 1
I would like you to research one adaptation for 5 plants and 5 animals (can be any type of adaptation that allows that species to survive and reproduce) and write a few sentences explaining each one (does not have to be long). You need to include the name and a picture of each plant and animal you write about.
For example …
1) Male peacock -> Insert picture of a male peacock.
Adaptation: Male peacocks grow very long bright feathers in order to attract females. This is an indication of fitness and shows how healthy and strong they are. It also helps them survive because predators are scared of the long multicolored feathers.
2) Sunflower -> Insert picture of a sunflower
Adaption: Sunflowers have very flat and wide leaves. This allows them to absorb the most amount of sunlight possible and make enough glucose through photosynthesis.
Part 2
Research and briefly explain the following terms in your own words (You can not copy and paste or use another person’s descriptions) …
1. Native vs invasive plant species
2. Explain how an anamorphosis species can affect native plants and animals
3. Abiotic vs biotic factors
4. Co-evolution
5. Convergent evolution
Brief information about Edgewood Park: can be anything
7. Bay checkerspot butterfly: information about it and why it is endagered
8. Serpentine soil
9. How to recognize poison oak
10. Adaptions to nutrient poor soil
 
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What, according to the authors, is a theory?

 
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AN 181 Andreatta and Ferraro
Chapter 4 Preview
DUE DATE: WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28
NAME _________________________________ SCORE (10) ______
1. The work of medical anthropologist Patricia Omidian is described in the first part of this chapter. In addition to being able to “fulfill her employment obligations”
as an anthropologist, what else did her fluency in the local language and her
respect for local cultural norms allow her to do?
a. avoid the restrictions of the Taliban that others had to observe b. remain in Afghanistan after 9/11 c. gain anthropological insights about life in rural Afghanistan
2. What, according to the authors, is a theory? (2 pts) __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. T F Cultural Materialism relies heavily on an outsider’s (as opposed to an insider’s or native’s) perspective to reach its conclusions.
4. T F Like many social sciences (history, psychology, sociology, economics, etc.), anthropology tends to rely on one single dominant theory at a time
and does not retain elements of earlier theories.
5. Applied anthropology and ethnographic anthropology a. have developed very distinct research methodologies. b. use similar methods to conduct their research. c. are similar in that neither focuses much attention of research methods.
6. Coding interview narratives so that patterns and trends can be identified is part of which stage of field research?
a. formulating a research design b. interpreting data c. analyzing data
7. Participant-observation generally requires the anthropologist to a. begin observing a community before trying to participate in its social life. b. learn the local language fluently before working with a community. c. have most of the field data ready for analysis before participating.
8. A particularly good data-gathering technique for understanding how local people interact with their environment and with one another is
a. interviewing. b. mapping. c. document analysis.
9. T F Compared to more traditional anthropological research, applied research is somewhat less collaborative and interdisciplinary.

 
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What are some of the emotional and physical problems associated with childhood and adolescent obesity?

 
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    Hello this is a Nutrition and Diet Therapy II class (biology ) and this is a discussion post so please read the instructions below. If you use  any sources; please list it. and NO PLAGIARISM.

Discussion #2 – Childhood Obesity

Your response should be a minimum of 250 words
Childhood  obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents  in the past 30 years.  Many say the rise is due to poor dietary  factors, while others will say it’s due to the sedentary lifestyle that a  large majority of children lead each day.  The long-term effects of  obesity can be debilitating.
1.  What are some of the emotional and physical problems associated with childhood and adolescent obesity?
2.  Who do you think is primarily to blame for the childhood obesity crisis in America?  Why?
3.  If you were placed on a government committee and asked to come up  with ONE solution that could potentially reduce the prevalence of  childhood obesity in future generations, what would your solution be?   Explain why you feel your solution would work by giving 1-2 supporting  pieces of evidence.
Your response should be a minimum of 250 words.  Many say the rise is due to poor dietary  factors, while others will say it’s due to the sedentary lifestyle that a  large majority of children lead each day.  The long-term effects of  obesity can be debilitating

 
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Describe at least 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks there might be for animal cells (including humans) to make their own food through photosynthesis

 
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 Minimum 200 Words.
 
Assignment Details
Photosynthesis and Chloroplasts
You will read that only plants, algae, and some bacteria are photosynthetic. There is an exception to this, however. One species of sea slug has found a way to steal chloroplasts, store them in glands lining its digestive tract, and live on the sugar that is produced (Milius, 2010).
Focus your discussion on 1 of the following topics:

  • Describe at least 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks there might be for animal cells (including humans) to make their own food through photosynthesis.
  • Explain which cells, tissues, or organs should be modified to lead to successful photosynthesis in animals. Discuss how this compares to a plant’s leaves.
  • Describe at least 1 requirement for photosynthesis that would need to be considered for chloroplasts to function in an animal or a human.
  • Predict 2 or more consequences of photosynthesis in humans.

Recommended: Click on the following links to review materials to enhance your knowledge and assist with your discussion post.
Chloroplast-Stealing Sea Slug
Photosynthesis
Utilize at least 1 credible source to support the arguments presented in your post. Make sure you cite appropriately within your narrative and list the reference(s) in APA format.
References
Farabee, M. J. (2007). Photosynthesis. Retrieved from https://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
Milius, S. (2010). Green sea slug is part animal, part plant. Wired. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/green-sea-slug/

 
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what is the value of life?

 
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 After reading chapters 11 and 12 of the McLaughlin & McLaughlin text, what set of values identified in the chapter would you consider important to any national health policy? Do we meet your set of values currently and if not, how do we get there? In your opinion, what is the value of life? How does it compare to the Christian worldview? How does it compare to other cultures and worldviews?
Your thread is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday, and your three replies are due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Saturday.
I need one Main Post (Minimum 400 words) and three Responses (200-250 Words each)
Below are the specific requirements for each part of this assignment.
THREADS:
· Must be at least 400 words.
· A minimum of one source is required (course textbook may be used).
· Citations used should be formatted in APA.
· Should thoroughly address the topic prompt, using citations as appropriate.
REPLIES:
· Must post at least three 200–250-word replies to your classmates/instructor per forum.
· Should expand upon ideas expressed in your classmates’ threads by adding new ideas to points that you agree with and/or explaining areas of disagreement.
· Should be posted intermittently throughout the forum.  Do not complete all of the replies at one time; instead, allow for conversation to develop by posting multiple times throughout the week.
· A minimum of one source per reply is required (course textbook may be used).
· Citations used should be formatted in APA.
I have attached the Discussion Rubic as to how the Main post and Responses would be Graded. Please follow every single Instruction. There is a Video attachment too that NEEDS TO BE USED doing the work
I have also attached the Main post of two students and one for instructor you need to respond to. Please send me the main post as well as the responses
Required Resources:
McLaughlin, C. P., & McLaughlin, C. D. (2015). Health policy analysis: An interdisciplinary approach (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN: 9781284037777.
American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (Current ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Iverson, C, Christiansen, S, & Flanagin, A. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors Current ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Requirement from Instructor:
This week I have posted my final thoughts on our current state of affairs within the area of Health Care Policy and hope you will take the opportunity to read and comment. It is OK to disagree as well. Remember that a response to my post counts in your three responses, so please engage, as you feel directed.
 
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What term is used to describe a neuron that is not transmitting a signal?

 
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Passing a signal from one neuron to another – Chemical synapse


If the nervous system is going to function properly, neurons must be able to communicate with each other by passing signals to one another. This occurs at a synapse, or relay point between two cells. The most common type of synapse in the nervous system of animals is chemical synapse. Chemical synapse occurs in the narrow space between the axon terminal of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron.

Revised 10/19/2011

When action potential reaches the axon terminal, it is converted into a chemical signal. This chemical signal comes in the form of a neurotransmitter (a chemical that carries information from one nerve cell to another). Once the action potential arrives at the end of the neuron, it stimulates vesicles containing a neurotransmitter. The vesicle will then fuse with the cell membrane and release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft using the process of exocytosis. The released neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptor molecules, which are proteins attached to ion channels within the membrane of the receiving cell. The binding of the neurotransmitters to the receptor molecules causes the ion channels to open, allowing Na+ to diffuse into the cell. This influx of Na+ ions causes an action potential in the receiving neuron. The neurotransmitter is then either broken down or transported back to the sending neuron to be reused. The absence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft causes the ion channels to close and the signal to end.

Analysis Questions Directions: Answer question based on readings


1. What term is used to describe a neuron that is not transmitting a signal?

2. Describe the conditions inside and outside of a neuron during resting potential.

3. Describe the conditions inside and outside of a neuron during action potential.

4. What causes a neuron to change from resting potential to action potential?

5. What causes a neuron to return to a resting potential from an action potential?
6. How is a signal transmitted through a single neuron?

7. What is a neurotransmitter?

8. How are neurotransmitters secreted into the synaptic cleft?

9. How does a neurotransmitter cause an action potential in a receiving neuron?
10. How is the signal between neurons stop?

 
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How did eradication of Rinderpest from East Africa increase both the tree and giraffe populations in the Serengeti?

 
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(1) Trophic Cascades in theSerengeti. Watch Dr. Cox’s video on “What Rinderpest eradication taught us about the Serengeti”, which can be found in the Instructor Insights folder for this week. Then address the following questions: (a) How did eradication of Rinderpest from East Africa increase both the tree and giraffe populations in the Serengeti? (b) How did eradication of Rinderpest from East Africa increase the population of predator species in the Serengeti? (c) What does this tell us about ecosystems?
  • (2) Shrinking Red Knots. Read two of the following three articles: Briggs (2016); Dussault (2016); Zimmer (2016). (A) In your own words summarize the basic story that the articles have in common. (B) Of the two articles you read, which of them do you prefer? Why?
  • (3) Biomes. The term “biome” is described in the textbook. For this topic, describe the biome where you grew up (or where you currently live). Identify your location, the biome of the region, and describe the major characteristics of that biome. Add enough detail and commentary from your own experience, so that your answer is 125 words or more. If you’re really ambitious, you could consider looking up the “ecoregion”. The EPA maintains information about that.

References.
Cox, J. F. (2017). What Rinderpest eradication taught us about the Serengeti. [Video]
Briggs, H. (2016, May 13). Shrinking bird pays the bill for Arctic warming. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment- 36266692
Dussault, J. (2016, May 12). Climate change chould be shrinking these arctic birds. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/0512/Climate-change-could-be-shrinking-these-Arctic-birds
Zimmer, C. (2016, May 12). Climate change and the case of the shrinking red knots. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/science/climate-change-bird-red-knots.html?_r=0

 
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Human culture is changing faster than humans can evolve

 
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Sexual selection is a specific form of natural selection that states that some individuals in a population are more reproductively successful than others. The theory goes on to discuss traits that occur in individuals that don’t really offer increased survivability, but seemingly are in place for the sole purpose of attracting a mate. A male peacock’s bright feathers and horns of a male ibex are examples of these sexual traits.
Can you think of other examples? Do humans display any of these characteristics? 50 words count
 
Human culture is changing faster than humans can evolve. What evidence of rapid environmental change do you see locally, nationally, and globally? Explain. 50 words count
Write a paragraph on allele frequency and a paragraph on gene pool.
comment on Katelynn post 50 word count
 
One major change in our environment, as compared to most of human history, is our access to food! I think of how easy it is for me to run to the grocery store and pick up food shipped here from all over the world. It has not always been such a simple and common thing to enjoy the produce of other continents. Our “food environment” has, in a way, expanded beyond our immediate geographic location, and so our access to more varied nutrient sources is heightened. We also have abundant access to junk food! So, there is great opportunity for the emergence of both wonderfully healthy populations and woefully disease-ridden populations.
 
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