history paper-time travel for bethuel best

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Time Travel, Coincidences and Counterfactuals

Author(s): Theodore Sider

Source: Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic

Tradition, Vol. 110, No. 2 (Aug., 2002), pp. 115-138 Published by: Springer

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(Received 3 May 2002)

 ABSTRACT. In no possible world does a time traveler succeed in killing her earlier self before she ever enters a time machine. So if many, many time travelers went back in time trying to kill their unprotected former selves, the time travelers would fail in many strange, “coincidental” ways, slipping on banana peels, killing the wrong victim, and so on. Such cases produce doubts about time travel. How could “coincidences” be guaranteed to happen? And wouldn’t the certainty of coincidental failure imply that time travelers are notfree to kill their earlier selves? But if so, what would inhibit their freedom? Despite initial appearances, these and other doubts may be answered: the possibility of time travel survives yet another challenge.


Imagine you had a time machine. Nothing would stop you from going back in time and killing yourself as an infant, before you ever entered the time machine. But then a contradiction would ensue: you would never have entered any time machine since you were killed before doing so (let “killing” be understood throughout as implying permanent death), and yet you would have entered a time machine, in order to travel back in time to kill yourself. Some conclude that time travel is impossible, since it would lead to this contradiction.

There is nothing special about autoinfanticide: similar problems arise whenever a time traveler resolves to go back in time and do something that did not in fact occur. A time traveler who remem-

bers owning a 1974 Plymouth Gold Duster could, it would seem, go back into the past and prevent herself from ever owning such a fine automobile; a time traveler could, it would seem, go back and

prevent Lincoln from giving the Gettysburg address, and so on. But autoinfanticide is an especially vivid example.

As it stands, this argument is very weak. All it shows is that autoinfanticide is impossible, as are related scenarios, such as one

La PhilosophicalStudies 110: 115-138,2002.

T 02002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.


philosophies of time according to which the future is “op no one other than a fatalist thinks this undermines my abi A. For Lewis, one has the ability to do A in w if one’s doi consistent with the relevant facts about w (where what fa as relevant varies according to the context of the speaker); time traveler’s victim is the time traveler herself is (typica contextually relevant fact.

 We have arrived at the following familiar position: desp impossibility of autoinfanticide, time travel is possible. M though time travelers do not kill their earlier selves, the cally have the ability to do so. This position is, I believe, c But consider the following challenge. In an interesting th experiment due to Horwich (1987, Chapter 7; 1995), time t repeatedly go back in time with the goal of killing their selves. Imagine a futuristic Institute for Autoinfanticide se legions of assassins. (Perhaps these assassins have been emb by the failures of repeated attempts on their lives in their ch and fear nothing, not even the rumored cataclysmic dest of the world that would result from a violation of the la logic.) Since autoinfanticide is impossible, each assassin fa change their minds, others slip and fall on banana peels, y kill the wrong target, and so on. But there is something o the idea that such “coincidences” are guaranteed to happen and again!

There are, in fact, a few different arguments in the vicinity. While some have been made explicitly in the literature, I suspect others to lie below the surface of continuing inchoate resistance to time travel. Each is seductive, but none, I think, succeeds in undermining its possibility or likelihood. The purpose of this paper is to present and then rebut these arguments.


Before expending too much energy on the topic, it is worth thin a bit about its point. Beyond the (perfectly legitimate) desire the record straight, is there any reason to care about time travel

The most straightforward reason to care is that today’s ph community cares. Whether the actual laws of nature permit


travel is a live debate in contemporary physics journals (see Earman, 1995). Suppose the arguments to be discussed in this paper against the possibility of time travel (without shackles) succeeded.

Given that many physicists tell us otherwise, that would be a problem! Whatever else metaphysicians must do, they should at least try to make metaphysical sense out of what physicists take seriously.

Secondly, time travel is tied up with larger issues in metaphysics and philosophy of science concerning the direction of time, causa tion, and so on. The possibility of time travel limits the space of acceptable theories in these areas.

Finally, time travel is connected with important issues in the philosophy of persistence. I have argued elsewhere (2001, Chapter 4, Section 7) that the possibility of time travel undermines “three dimensionalism”, the view that objects persist over time by being “wholly present” or “enduring”, rather than by “perduring”, i.e., persisting by means of temporal parts.


 Having resolved to care about time travel, let us consider what argu ments might be based on Horwich’s thought experiment. There is first the argument that Horwich himself advances (1987, Chapter 7). Repeated attempts at autoinfanticide would lead to repeated “coinci dental” failures – slips on banana peels, failures of nerve, etc. But we have empirical reason to think that such repeated coincidences do not occur. We do notice the odd slip on a banana peel en route to a murder, but such slips are rare indeed. Since we have strong inductive evidence against the existence of a rash of coincidences of this sort, we have reason to think that time travel into the recent past does not occur.

The argument establishes at most that we have defeasible reason to believe that time travel into the recent past does not actu ally occur. The argument concerns only the actual world because the evidence against coincidences is contingent; clearly strings of coincidences might have occurred. The argument provides only defeasible evidence because the evidence is inductive: the future existence of strings of coincidences is logically compatible with


travelers with attendant strings of “coincidences”, since the present absence of coincidences does not seem to be projectible. To date, we have observed no rash of coincidences. But this observation does not warrant postulating any law of nature, only a certain matter of

 particular fact: that no legion of assassins has descended upon the present time (either because time travel will never be discovered, or because no future Institute for Autoinfanticide has attended to our time). There is no reason to expect such a particular matter of fact to continue to obtain (absent independent evidence against the existence of time machines); it is only observed lawlike patterns that are projectible into the future.

For all we have learned from the probabilistic argument, time travel might yet occur in our world. But let us leave the actual world to the physicists and return to the question of whether there are conceptual or metaphysical challenges to the very possibility of time travel. As noted, the probabilistic argument provides no such challenge. But further interesting challenges to time travel may be based on Horwich’s thought experiment.


Imagine that time travel is indeed possible, and that The Corporate Board contemplates forming an Institute for Autoinfanticide. In fact they decide against its formation. But what would have happened had the Institute been formed? There would have been an incre dible series of coincidences. Had the institute been formed, there would have been a long string of slips on banana peels, serendipitous changes of heart, and the like.

We are all familiar with might-conditionals of this sort: if I had gotten up from the couch today, I might have tripped on a banana peel. But few of us think that in normal cases, would-conditionals of this sort are ever true. Unless one’s couch is surrounded by banana peels, garden rakes and hanging cymbals, counterfactuals of this sort seem false:

If I had gotten up from the couch, I would have encountered some “coincidental” disaster

At most what is true is:


requires strange shackles on the time traveler. Vihvelin herself does not draw this conclusion, but it is hard to see why. Once the inability of the time traveler to kill her former self is admitted, one wonders what prevents her from doing so. Vihvelin is willing to grant that a time traveler is free to do many things other than kill her earlier self, but what prevents the time traveler from doing this thing?


 A final argument would be that the repeated slips on banana peels are too predictable and regular to be coincidences. There must be some force or mechanism causing the slips, perhaps due in some way to the fact that the would-be assassins are time travelers. But if that’s so, then again we have a challenge to the freedom of the time-travelers, for such a force would presumably be inconsistent with their freedom. Of course, this is no threat to the possibility of time travel itself, for one can always spin a time-travel yarn with a convenient guardian of logic ready to cause slips on banana peels when inconsistency threatens. But the argument nevertheless threatens those of us who think that time travel is possible without such shackles on time travelers. It moreover threatens the possibility of time travel in worlds like our own, in which time travelers would presumably be unshackled.


In fact, each of these arguments may be rebutted. I begin with the argument of Section 4, that would-counterfactuals of coincidence are never true. Let us leave time travel for the moment and consider a more mundane case. Suppose I tried to throw a heavy stone at a fragile window. Since I have good aim and a strong arm, the window would break. I might, I suppose, slip on a banana peel, or hit a bird passing by with the rock, or have my throw deflected by a great gust of wind, or have a sudden failure of aim despite my many years of training in stone-throwing. But at the very least, it surely is not the case that one of these strange coincidences would happen. The would-counterfactual of coincidence:


If I were to try to throw the stone at the window, I would slip on a hit a passing bird or…

is false.

But now let us consider a different counterfactual:

(C) If I were to try to throw the stone at the window but the window did not subsequently break, then I would slip on a banana peel or hit a passing bird or …

 Here I have built my failure into the antecedent; the counterfactual concerns what would have happened had I tried and failed. Here, I think, our sense is that the counterfactual is now true. Given the background facts, the only way for me to fail to hit the window would be for some strange coincidence to occur. Though most ordinary would-counterfactuals of coincidence are false, some are true, namely those whose antecedents describe circumstances that could only come about by an “unlikely coincidence”. We can think of the antecedents of these conditionals as describing states of affairs that embed a certain “tension”, states of affairs that are “difficult” to make true. To include such a state of affairs, a possible world must include some strange coincidence. (Or something even stranger, perhaps a lurking guardian of the window ready to spring out and intercept the rock. Since no such guardian is present in the actual world, surely no guardian would have existed had I thrown the rock.)

We should all agree that there are true would-counterfactuals of coincidence like (C) whose antecedents “embed tension” in this way. But in fact, the counterfactuals in the time travel case are similar. We ask what would have happened if a time traveler had tried to kill her earlier self. If the time traveler is in fact a capable assassin and has the appropriate resolve and information, then making this antecedent true is very “difficult”; it is hard to find a non-coincidental reason why the time traveler would fail. And yet

there is no possible world in which the time traveler successfully kills her earlier self. Thus, the would-counterfactual of coincidence:

If a certain time traveler had tried to kill her earlier self, she would have slipped on a banana peel or had a sudden change of heart or … looks a lot like (C). But we admitted that (C) is true. We should say the same thing about this counterfactual. Coincidences would have happened, in the right circumstances.


 the case that P then it would have been the case that Q1 is true at w iff Q is true in the possible world most similar to w in which P is true.5 The relevant similarity relation is one determined in part by the conversational context of the speaker, and may weight some contextually salient factors more heavily than others. In the context in which (T) seems true, we are holding constant the fact that Tina is a time traveler, and the fact that the little girl standing in front of her at t is Tina herself. So in this context, the counterfactual is a lot like (C), in containing an antecedent that is very “difficult” to make true in worlds similar to the actual world, given that in all those worlds Tina is a time traveler attempting to kill her earlier self. (T)’s truth is therefore no more surprising than (C)’s.


The truth of certain would-counterfactuals of coincidence in cases of time travel has been defended. But what of their connection with freedom? How can the members of the Institute for Autoinfanticide be free of unusual constraints during time travel, when if they were to attempt to kill their former selves they would repeatedly fail?

Let us again examine an analogous case having nothing to do with time travel.6 Suppose we define a permanent bachelor as a man

who never gets married. When we survey the class of permanent

bachelors across the space of all possible worlds, we find that they fail to get married for a variety of reasons. Some never have the inclination, others wish to be married but never find a suitable partner, others slip on banana peels and fatally injure themselves while walking down the aisle, and so on. No anti-nuptial force need

be postulated to account for this: by our definition of “permanent bachelor” we selectively attend to a certain class of possible indi viduals when we ask for the class of permanent bachelors. Many of these permanent bachelors could have gotten married. No force stands in their way; had they gotten married, they would no longer

have counted as permanent bachelors.

The example may be brought a step closer to relevance by considering certain counterfactuals.


In thinking about the freedom of permanent bachelors, we ought to distinguish between two sorts of claim. First, consider a permanent bachelor who never attempts to get married. Let this person be a perfectly ordinary, actual, permanent bachelor with no extraordinary social or psychological impediments to marriage. We clearly want to say that this person could have married, despite the truth of counterfactuals like: “if this person had been a permanent bachelor, and had tried to get married, he would have slipped on a banana peel or . . .”. The actual freedom to get married is claimed, and his counterfactual failure (under the description “permanent

 bachelor”) is irrelevant to this claim. Contrast this with a claim of counterfactual freedom. One might claim also that, had this person been a permanent bachelor and tried to get married, he would have failed in one of a number of “coincidental ways”, but would nevertheless have been free. Here one is claiming the permanent bachelor has counterfactual freedom, despite counterfactual failure. This claim of freedom would also be true, I think. As argued above, cases in which permanent bachelors try and fail to get married include cases of “coincidental failure” similar to cases with which we are familiar. Some people really do slip on banana peels on their way to the altar. Such slips involve bad luck, but no failure of freedom. The appearance to the contrary is due to neglecting the role of selective attention in the truth of would-counterfactuals of coincidence.


Let us now return to time travel, beginning with the argument o Section 6. The argument was that the numerous mishaps faced b time travelers attempting autoinfanticide just couldn’t be coinci dences. There must be some force or mechanism preventing the killings, perhaps a force causally linked to the would-be assassins status as time travelers. But then, those assassins are shackled in

implausible way, and would not be free.

In light of our remarks on selective attention, the argument loses its force. The many mishaps facing the class of permanent bache lors require no explanation beyond the fact that we delineated the class with our notion of a permanent bachelor. The class of possib


worlds containing time trave

 ticide is similar. We have placed two constraints on this class of worlds that are very difficult to satisfy jointly. The first requires the worlds to contain large numbers of persons who want to kill certain persons, and have the means and the desire to do so. The second constraint is that the would-be killers are time travelers and the would-be victims are their former selves. This in effect requires that these persons fail in their missions. We thereby selectively attend to a class of worlds that contains large numbers of “coincidental failures”. This requires no force compelling failure. We have delin eated the class of worlds so that it contains the failures; the failures can still be genuine coincidences. The freedom of the time travelers is not compromised.7

It may help to remember that logical space contains many worlds with segments that are qualitatively like cases in which time trave lers confront their former selves. In some, the would-be murderers fail, but in others they succeed. These latter cases are cases in which the victims are not the former selves of the murderers. Whether a given segment is embedded in a world in which a would be murderer counts as the later self of a victim determines the inclusion of the segment in the class of worlds to which we have selectively confined our attention, in discussion of time travel and autoinfanticide.


The other argument against the possibility of time travel (S

was that the freedom of time travelers is undermined by th

of would-counterfactuals of coincidence. The argument appealed to Vihvelin’s principle that a person is genuinely free to do a certain thing only if it is true that if she had tried to do the thing, she would have or at least might have succeeded. This argument, too, is undermined by the phenomenon of selective attention, although the matter is delicate. The truth of counterfactuals like these:

(PB 1) For all x, if it had been the case that (x is a permanent bachelor who attempts to get married), it would have been the case that: (x slips on a banana peel and dies, or gets a bad case of cold feet, or .. .)


 (nor would she have her ordinary powers undermined). The point of doing so is to avoid the conclusion that the possibility of time travel could only be secured by postulating a kind of “force” or “guardian of logic” that shackles time travelers by ensuring that they perform certain tasks. Such guardians should be resisted, not because they are impossible (since surely they are not impossible), but rather because it is hard to believe that the sort of time travel the physicists consider an open possibility would require such exotic metaphy sical add-ons, and moreover because time travel seems possible in worlds that lack such guardians. If temporal part Killer is free to kill temporal part Victim, that is sufficient for time travel being possible without metaphysical add-ons; it shows that the causal order in a world including time travel need not contain any such guardians. This is the bar for success I set for myself: showing that time trave lers need not be shackled by metaphysical add-ons. It would not matter much if it turned out that what we ordinarily mean by “the time traveler can kill her earlier self” is false. (In fact I argue below that this does not turn out false.)

It is worth showing that Vihvelin’s challenge to the freedom of time travelers can be answered without assuming the metaphysics of temporal parts. Pretend for a moment that objects “endure”, i.e., persist “wholly present” through time. As we have learned, utili zing Vihvelin’s principle requires consulting a counterfactual that does not contain the description “time traveler” in its scope. So let us name the time traveler “Katy”, and consider the truth of the following counterfactual relative to a world, w, in which Katy travels back in time with the intention of killing her former self, but decides against doing so:

(K) If Katy had tried to kill Katy, she would have or at least might have succeeded

There may be similarity metrics under which (K) turns out false, but the question is whether (K) is true under a metric that does not hold constant facts about what happens after the attempted killing, for that is the only metric under which Vihvelin’s principle is true. To answer this question we must compare the similarity of various worlds to the original world w. Those worlds include:


attempts to kill her former self are worlds containing suc dental failures, this does not imply the presence in w of mechanisms or the absence in w of enabling mechanisms. fore, the falsity of counterfactuals like (K) and (KV) in w not show that time travelers in w lack the ability to kill their selves. Vihvelin’s principle fails because in these cases the f counterfactuals like (K) and (KV) lacks its usual import.

 Remarks like those of the past few paragraphs also answer a challenge to the freedom of time travelers based on a principle weaker than Vihvelin’s: that freedom to do X requires the metaphy sical possibility of doing X, whereas it is metaphysically impossible for Katy to kill Katy in circumstances intrinsically like the case of time travel.13 First, this principle allows that the temporal part Killer is free to kill the temporal part Victim, and that is freedom enough. Second, temporal parts aside, the worlds in Class 4 show that it is metaphysically possible that Katy kill Katy in circum stances intrinsically like those of the case of time travel. This is

not to say that there is a possible world in which Katy kills Katy in this way but is also a time traveler in that world. But the case of the permanent bachelors shows that freedom at most requires that the agent possibly do the action simpliciter, not that the agent possibly do the action under some description. Finally, if the exis tence of these possibilities is rejected, this would only show that their existence is not required for freedom, for the nonexistence of the possibilities would not have its usual import; it would not indicate the presence of disabling causal mechanisms or the absence of enabling mechanisms in worlds in which time travel occurs.


Time travel escapes again, unscathed. If many time travelers attempted autoinfanticide, an apparently miraculous series of coincidences would ensue. But this fact is unremarkable, and in no way undermines time travelers’ freedom. As comparison with uncontroversial cases has shown, it is the result of the description

“time traveler who attempts autoinfanticide” focusing our attention on a certain class of possible worlds, a class of worlds that is guaran-


Smith, Nicholas J.J. (1997): ‘Bananas enough for Time Travel’, British Journal

for the Philosophy of Science 48, 363-389.

Stalnaker, Robert (1968): ‘A Theory of Conditionals’, in N. Rescher (ed.), Studies

in Logical Theory, Oxford: Blackwell.

Vihvelin, Kadri (1996): ‘What Time Travelers Cannot Do’, Philosophical Studies

81, 315-330.

Rutgers University, NJ


E-mail: trsider@syredu

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Paper III: Novel, Monograph Movie

8-10 Page paper

History of American Technology

Due December 3, 2018

First – Choose a novel (A FICTIONAL WORK), and a movie (THE PLOT MUST BE

FICTIONAL) relating to the same technology – like computers, the internet, nano-technology, use of technology in industry, the atomic bomb etc. (see posted lists of suggested topics and some possible sources)

Second – Read and view each of the works

Third write 3-page reviews of each of these works – the specifications for movie and book reviews are on the attached pages. Each review should be separate from one another – total pages for this segment is 6 pages.

Fourth, select a journal article on the history of the technology as a case study – the work should explain enough about the technology that you will know what you need to know in order to compare the real technology to the two fictional examples. You should find the article by going on JSTOR through the library’s database the article should be no less than 20 pages in length – 2- or 3-page sources are totally unacceptable as well as brief popular readings. Write a summary of the article’s content no more than a page long.

Fifth, have selected the three sources by November 5, 2018) and provide full bibliographic information for each of the three works plus a statement of the technology represented in all three sources word processed and hard copy brought to class that day to hand in to the Professor that day. No extensions – and if it is not turned in on time you lose 10 points off the grade and your sources will not be approved) Your three choices must not duplicate the choices of anyone else in the class hence I will be setting up a spread sheet of the citations and some of you will have to select different sources after I have identified the repeats.

Sixth, compare the works in an essay using the following questions as a guide. Your essay should not be limited by these questions but build on them. Use the article you have summarized as a check of characteristics of the real technology to be compared to the fictional representations of it.

1. Does the technology play a major or minor role in the studies?

2. How well does the author of the screenplay or book relate the technology to American culture?

3. In what ways is the fictional approach inaccurate?

4. How must the technology be inaccurate to allow the story line to proceed?

5. Look up information about the novelist or screenwriter and his writing to get a feel for what he/she considers when writing such a story.

This section should be pages long.

How to Write a Book Review

A book review is both a description and an evaluation of a book. It should focus on the book’s purpose, contents, and authority.

Scan the Book’s Preliminaries

Before beginning to read, consider the following:

1. Title – What does it suggest?

2. Preface – Provides important information on the author’s purpose in writing the book and will help you to determine the success of the work.

3. Table of Contents – Tells you how the book is organized and will aid in determining the author’s main ideas and how they are developed – chronologically, topically, etc.

Read the Text

Record impressions as you read and note effective passages for quoting. Keep these questions in mind:

1. What is the general field or genre, and how does the book fit into it? (Use outside sources to familiarize yourself with the field, if necessary?

2. From what point of view is the work written?

3. What is the author’s style? Is it formal or informal? Does it suit the intended audience? If a work of fiction, what literary devices does the author use?

4. Are concepts clearly defined? How well are the author’s ideas developed? What areas are covered/not covered? Why? This helps to establish the book’s authority.

5. If a work of fiction, make notes on such elements as characterplot, and setting, and how they relate to the theme of the book. How does the author delineate his characters? How do they develop? What is the plot structure?

6. How accurate is the information in the book? Check outside sources if necessary.

7. If relevant, make note of the book’s format – layout, binding, typography, etc. Are there maps, illustrations? Do they aid understanding?

8. Check the back matter. Is the index accurate? What sources did the author use – primary or secondary? How does he make use of them? Make note of important omissions.

9. Finally, what has the book accomplished? Is further work needed? Compare the book to others by this author or by others. (Use the listing in the bibliography.)

Consult Additional Sources

Try to find further information about the author – his/her reputation, qualifications, influences, etc. – any information that is relevant to the book being reviewed and that would help to establish the author’s authority. Knowledge of the literary period and of critical theoriescan also be helpful to your review. Your professor and/or reference librarian will be able to suggest sources to use.

Prepare an Outline

Carefully review your notes and attempt to unify your impressions into a statement that will describe the purpose or thesis of your review. Then, outline the arguments that support your thesis. Your arguments should develop the thesis in a logical manner.

Write the Draft

Skim your notes again; then, using the outline as a guide and referring to notes when necessary, begin writing. Your book review should include the following:

1. Preliminary Information – the complete bibliographic citation for the work ie, title in full, author, place, publisher, date of publication, edition statement, pages, special features (maps, color plates, etc.), price and Example:

Rory Maclean, Under the Dragon in a betrayed land, London: Harper Collins, 1998. 224pp.


Centered in the middle of the page before the body of your review.

2. Introduction – Try to capture the reader’s attention with your opening sentence. The introduction should state your central thesis, and set the tone of the review.

3. Development – Develop your thesis using supporting arguments as set out in your outline. Use description, evaluation, and if possible explanation of why the author wrote as he/she did. Use quotations to illustrate important points or peculiarities.

4. Conclusion – If your thesis has been well argued, the conclusion should follow naturally. It can include a final assessment or simply restate your thesis. Do not introduce new material at this point.

Revise the Draft

1. Allow some time to elapse before going over your review, to gain perspective.

2. Carefully read through the text, looking for clarity and coherence.

3. Correct grammar and spelling.

4. Verify quotes for proper footnoting.

How to Write A Movie Review Movie reviews are a wonderful way of evaluating movies. Regardless of the type of movie or the age of the movie, movie reviews allow people to determine whether or not they think they might like a movie before ever seeing it. When writing a movie review, there are several different guidelines to follow.

Criteria The following outline offers the basic elements that should be found in any good movie review. Not all of the elements listed below may be applicable to all movies, however, these criteria provide a general overview for all components that should be included in a basic movie review.

___Title of Review

___Name of movie being reviewed

___What genre is the movie a part of

___Are the characters in the movie easy to understand?

___Evaluate Acting

___Briefly summarize the plot (do not use more than 1 paragraph to summarize) ___Briefly summarize how the movie incorporates the technology in question.

___Is the movie easy to follow?

___Compare to other movies of the same genre


___What other movies has this director done?

___Overall rating

All reviews should be objective and impartial, and should be carefully written.

Keep in mind the questions that you will be answering in the fourth part of the project paper. Be sure to provide the information necessary to respond to those questions in relation to other works you’ve used in this review.

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Hist 1302 writting assignment

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HIST 1302 Fall 2018

US History Since 1877

Instructions for Writing Assignment (30% of the Course Grade) Each student is required to submit one Book Critique for Hidden Figures. Paper Requirements: This critique must be 3 to 5 pages of text (word count does not include your name, the date of submission, or any heading information), which will be turned in electronically in D2L only on December 9th, by 10 pm. No email submissions of the assignment will be accepted. Format for the essay is as follows: typed, Times New Roman, 12 point font, and double-spaced, with one-inch margins. This assignment must be an original work of the student, with proper citations throughout the text. No internet sources are to be used for this critique. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and is not acceptable (see the Academic Integrity section of this syllabus and/or the Academic Integrity & Student Success pamphlet provided with the syllabus for more information regarding plagiarism.) All assignments will be processed through the TurnItIn Similarity checker for plagiarized and/or copied material. A student who submits work that is plagiarized will receive a zero for their writing assignment grade. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure their assignment is submitted via D2L by the due date. Any difficulties encountered in posting the submission must be communicated to the professor by December 8th. No submissions will be accepted after December 15th. Any submission posted after 10 pm on December 9th will be counted as late and will have the paper grade reduced 5 points for late submission. Submissions must be proofread carefully. To be eligible for full credit on the assignment the work must be formatted properly without any syntax or grammar errors and must be written in simple past tense. Simple past tense means to write using was, were, had, instead of using could be, to be, may be, should be, etc. Do not use contractions (don’t, wouldn’t, won’t, etc.) in the paper. Submissions that present a pattern of such errors will result in a significantly reduced grade.

Assignment Purpose: The purpose of a book critique is to have the student recognize the author’s thesis or main intent of writing the book. This thesis is then proven by the author using facts and/or historical accounts to substantiate their reason for producing the work. For more information on the structure required for this book critique, see the Structure of Critique descriptions within these instructions. The submission of the Book Critique will include the following at the top of the first page. Your paper does not need a title. *************************************

[Student’s Name] Professor Smith HIST (Section #) (Semester) (Year) Substance of the Critique: Citation in Critique: Throughout the entire critique, each student must use MLA style parenthetical citations when referring to a particular passage in the text. Any paper that does not have citations throughout the text will receive a zero for their Writing Assignment grade.

Structure of Critique: Introduction: Each student will begin their introductory paragraph by describing the main thesis of the book. The thesis is the main argument of the book. This will be followed by three or four key points that explain or substantiate the thesis in detail. Body: The body of the critique will discuss the key points according to the chronological order of their mention in the opening paragraph. Specifically, each point needs to be discussed in full detail using references from the source to prove the point’s significance to the thesis. The student must express the purpose of the point discussed, the significance the point has to the thesis, and the significance the point has to the entire work. The references used must show evidence that the each point supports the thesis of the work. Conclusion: This section must wrap up the discussion of the three to four main points and restate the thesis mentioned in the introductory paragraph. The student will then discuss how this book enhanced or did not enhance their understanding of the book’s subject matter. This is where the student is allowed to express their comments in the first person.

Writing Sample

Student Name

Prof Smith

HIST (Section #)

Linda Kerber’s Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America

discussed the “origins” of “Republican Motherhood” during the Revolution. Kerber traced these

origins from Colonial times through the Revolution (Kerber 11-12). Kerber used the historical

accounts of women who were influential in making strides in the development of politics and

influence of women in the world during the Revolution era. She showed the link between the new

nation after the Revolution and women. The points that substantiated her work’s purpose were the

discussion of female patriotism, reading and education for women in the Republic, and the creation

of Republican Motherhood.

Kerber stated that female patriotism, much like male patriotism, was rooted in their

involvement to their country; specifically, the Revolutionary War. Women served during the

military as nurses, cooks, maids, or ran boarding houses for the soldiers (Kerber, 73). Women who

were part of the developing “patriot circles” were seen as “politically conscious women” who had

more influence because of their position or status in society. Sarah Livingston Jay and Catharine

Livingston were two women who wrote many letters which discussed their personal political

opinions, and criticized others for their warped opinions on politics (Kerber, 76 – 79).

Of course, the most well-known female patriot Kerber discussed, Mercy Otis Warren, was

part of “intensely political circles” throughout her life. At one point, Warren received

communication from Hannah Lincoln that questioned her outward role in politics and stated that

Lincoln’s own husband disapproved of women in political venues or discussions (Kerber 80-83).

Warren replied to Lincoln that women were just as important to politics as men and that women

were capable of discussing politics while still maintaining their “domestic responsibilities” (Kerber,

83-84) Warren understood what it meant for women involved in politics. These women faced

opposition from the men outwardly in politics because they failed to believe that women were

capable of intellectually participating in political discussion, debate, or even to form their own

opinion. Warren proved to men in her societal circles and the world that women were capable of

handling political discourse and keeping their domestic duties fulfilled (Kerber 84 – 85).

Kerber stated that the educational opportunities for women expanded after the end of the

Revolution mainly because it was believed the new country needed educated individuals among its

citizenry in order to survive as a nation. Despite this needed educational advantage, women were

still forced to read mainly fiction books rather than scholarly works. Some families risked being

labeled eccentric because they taught their daughters the Classics. Aaron Burr was one of many

men who insisted his daughter learn “Latin and Greek” and studied the great Classics.

Improvements in education for women occurred despite the negative criticism from some within

the new Republic. According to Kerber, expanded education and reading materials made available

created a different sphere of domesticity for women. Men in society sought solutions to keep

women engaged in domestic duties despite the changing circumstances. These men claimed that

educated women had more influence in raising the children than out in society (Kerber, 189, 199,

215-218, 213, 235).

The Republican Motherhood, according to Kerber, consisted of women determined to

obtain education, more “recognition” for their works in the world, and a “strong political” life in

“the Republic” (Kerber, 284). Kerber stated that Republican Motherhood created opportunities for

political socialization that were never available to women before the Revolution; however, these

opportunities were restricted to the home. There were those that believed home was the only place

women were allowed to have political opinions or discourse. The Republican Motherhood needed

dissolution for women to gain their place in society. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton knew this

and used the backdrop of Republican Motherhood to further the struggle for equality (Kerber, 284

– 288).

Kerber traced origins of Republican Motherhood in Women of the Republic: Intellect and

Ideology in Revolutionary America and found that it was after the Revolution era when political

activism and political involvement for women expanded. However, this expansion was only within

their current sphere of domesticity. Kerber’s work provided an alternate view of the continuing

struggle faced by all women in American society and traced this struggle back to its origins in our

past as a nation.

  • US History Since 1877
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Art 120 Final project

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ART102 Final Project: Presentation & Paper

Your final assignment is to curate an online art exhibition that has artwork representing each Unit in chronological order. Using the unit outlines as a guide, organize an image presentation where each of the units are represented (at least two images per Unit). Be creative, and generate an exhibition that represents your personal tastes and what you have discovered throughout the course. Choose two artists or artistic styles from each Unit and search for art online that you can relate to and discuss, based on how you have learned to evaluate the art in each Unit. For each image selected, write a brief appraisal, as if you were a critic. Put the facts and figures aside, and describe your personal reactions to each piece, as if you were visiting a museum with a friend and expressing your reactions based on the knowledge you have acquired. Accompanying the image presentation, write a final paper linked to the discoveries of your presentation, with appraisals for each Unit as well as a final reflection on what you have learned, including new knowledge or discoveries.

Unit 1 Pre-Renaissance

Unit 2 Renaissance Italy

Unit 3 Reformation Italy/throughout Europe

Unit 4 Baroque Italy and Spain/Netherlands/France

Unit 5 Age of enlightenment/age of romanticism

Unit 6 Realism and Impressionism/Post Impressionism

Unit 7 Abstraction and world conflicts

Unit 8 Post war to Contemporary Art

The final product will include:

1. Presentation

a. Cover slide

b. Sections based on era

i. Images/photos of the era (one image per slide)

ii. Brief description of the piece

iii. Citations covering any needed resources

c. APA formatted Reference slide

2. Written document

a. Cover page

b. Sections linked to presentation slides

i. Brief appraisal

ii. Personal reaction

c. Reflection

i. Reflection on what you learned; including new knowledge or discoveries

d. APA formatted Reference page

Grading & Criteria Rubric

CriteriaExemplary90-100%Proficient70-89%Needs Improvement0-69%Total
Overview of the topicOverview is clearly presented including all criteria outlined aboveOverview is presented, though may not be clear or completeDoes not provide an adequate overview or is missing/20
InterpretationCritiques content with insightRecognizes basic contentMissing major content areas/20
EvaluationExamines conclusionsIdentifies some conclusionsFails to draw conclusions/20
PresentationDiscusses issues thoroughly and shows intellectual honestyIdentifies or generalizes issuesMisrepresents issues or draws faulty conclusions/10
Evidence of learning outcomesComplete evidence of all learning objectivesSome evidence of learning objectivesUnclear or contradictory evidence of learning objectives/10
ImagesAll of the images are appropriate for the content.Most of the images are appropriate for the content.Some or none of the images are appropriate for the content/10
APA formatted citations and referencesAPA formatted with demonstrated understanding; less than 3 mistakesAPA formatted with less than five mistakesAPA formatting/components missing/5
Clear professional writing and academic toneWriting and format is clear, professional, appropriate academic tone and is error freeFew errors that do not impede professional presentation, some variance on academic toneErrors impede professional presentation, guidelines not followed, first/second person point of view, non-academic tone./5
Instructor Feedback:Total: XX/100
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the Black Panthers’ 10 Point Plan (Due 5pm Est)

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Please use this discussion for your topic postings for the 3rd essay and select one topic from the list below. Please also include a short explanation of what motivated you to select your topic and offer your thesis. 

  1. The Black Panthers’ 10 Point Plan

All essay topics will be based on the thematic readings in this course. Students will be allowed to pick their own topics based on the subject matter discussed in class. Topic selections have to be approved by the instructor. All essays will be evaluated using the matrix listed above.

Essay Format:

  • MS Word File
  • Three Page Minimum
  • Times New Roman or Arial
  • Font 12
  • Cover Page with Name, Course, Title, Essay No.
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Visit and research paper

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Dr. Deena M. Lin

Phil 502: World Religions

Visit & Research Paper Requirements

Each student will be expected to complete a five-page, double-spaced research paper that consists of both an argument as well as a visit to a Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, or Islamic site of worship. This link provides some possibilities for you to visit (although the parks included are not sufficient for this assignment). It is completely acceptable for you to find an alternative to the sites listed, but just make sure they are part of one of the major traditions we are studying for the course. You are always welcome to see me to ensure you are visiting an acceptable site.

Papers must be turned in on December 7th in class, and should be taken very seriously, as it is worth 20% of your overall grade in the course. Please don’t rush through this assignment. Give yourself enough time to complete it well before the date it is due, because this is much more than a long opinion piece.

Students must turn in a working outline of your paper on November 9th, a month prior to the due date of the paper. The outline will serve as a means for you to organize your thoughts and how you will approach your argument on the topic you’ve chosen. It is worth 5% of your grade, and it is highly recommended that students discuss their topic with the instructor prior to composing their outline. Students must also conduct research on their topic, reading articles that have been written to see if it is viable for them to adequately defend their thesis.

Your paper must be typed using double-spacing, Times New Roman, 12pt. font, with 1” margins all around. Use the attached template for proper formatting. Points will be lost if your paper fails to meet these parameters. I will only accept these assignments late or via email in the most extreme of circumstances. Should your late work be accepted, you will be docked one letter grade per day it is late.

Please follow these steps to complete your assignment:

1. Come up with an area of interest or question that interests you about a religious tradition outside your own, which we cover in this course.

2. Research a site of worship within that faith tradition, and note the service date and time. If you choose a Buddhist temple, please incorporate a dharma talk in your visit. Call ahead to ensure visitors are welcome, as well as if there are rules regarding dress attire.

3. Visit the site, and take detailed notes which you will incorporate into the observation portion of your paper.

4. After your visit, think about what revelations you gained from your visit in terms of the initial interests and concerns you had from the beginning. Now, come up with a claim that you will argue in your paper. To get clearer, you may want to start searching the web to assist you with learning more about the topic and the question you’re focused on.

5. Contact me either via email or during my office hour to ensure your topic would be a reasonable one to address in your paper. You should create your thesis prior to contacting me, but if you need assistance I can help you with this during my office hour.

6. Research your topic, and focus on finding materials that support your position and strengthen your argument.

7. Construct an outline of your argument. This is a philosophy paper, so the thesis needs to be defended through presenting solid research that gives credence to your view. Your visit to the site provides further evidence, but to substantiate your case you must include academic research in either book or journal article form that helps support your view. You must submit a working outline by November 9th.

8. Compose your paper. Please use the following format:

I. Introduction.

Your intro. should present your topic, as well as your thesis, and how you will argue your position. To achieve this briefly introduce the topic, state your thesis, follow this with a paper map (where you briefly state how you will construct your argument), and lastly state its relevance for the reader (i.e., why should I care?).

II. Provide an exegesis of the relevant material that will support your position.

A. Address the basic elements on the topic you have chosen.

-Define the terms that are relevant to what you will be discussing in your argument.

-Explain these terms to show how they are relevant to your position in your own words.

-Include quotes from the primary source material (and cite them properly).

B. Offer an overview of your position in your words.

This section is very difficult because it could require that you summarize a large text in a very short amount of time. It can also be hard to balance the details with the main idea. Therefore, it is helpful to provide the details in the main summary then end this section with a general narrative of the position in your own words. Try to tie-up all the loose pieces of the summary in this final paragraph.

III. Define your positionand defend it.

     A. State your position.    -Remind the reader of the main idea behind the position.

   B. Defend this position.    -Explain why you have chosen this position.

It is not enough to explain that you agree with it, you must also explain why you agree with it. Provide examples. Show what details attracted you to the position. Provide evidence as to how history, current events, or your own experiences conform to this position. This is where you should incorporate your observations and insights from your visit. Through supporting your claim with a first-person perspective, it should make your claim more credible.

IV: Conclusion: Briefly bring together all the aspects discussed in your paper.

    A. Briefly restate the purpose of the paper.

    B. BRIEFLY address the main background material relevant to support your position.

    C. Briefly restate your position.

    D. Wrap up any loose ends and write a future goal (i.e. why are your thoughts on this topic’s relevance?).

    The conclusion cannot contain any new information. It can only restate or reorganize that which has already been said. It is still useful because it reminds the reader of what they read and of what you have concluded. Don’t underestimate the importance of the conclusion, but, at the same time, keep it short. A couple of paragraphs should be fine.     Your last paragraph should identify a future problem. Are there any unresolved issues that you have not solved? Are there any dangling questions that are essential to deal with in the future? You need not answer all these questions, but you must acknowledge them. It is very common to end papers with an open question that shows the reader that you are still thinking about certain issues, and that they should continue to think about them as well.

9. Important things to note while doing this project:

A. You should provide the thoughts and feelings that arose during your visit in this paper, and include your reflections on the relevant sacred text(s), doctrines, rituals, ethics, religious (emotional) experiences, important material objects, concepts of the sacred or holy, and social institutions of the religion.

B. In addition to documenting your observations during your time at the site, you are also required to make this a scholarly essay. To achieve this, please incorporate some further critical reflection on themes we cover in this course. As an academic exercise, I will be looking for whether your work demonstrates that you have been educated on the tradition you write about.

C. This is also a library-based assignment, so it is imperative that you utilize at least two scholarly sources, which can be in the form of journal articles or out of a book (as long as it is not our course text).

D. Because additional research is required, you must properly cite your work. It is not enough that you cite additional work, but you must show me how it is incorporated into your essay by making proper references to them in your paper (whether directly quoted or not). See the following cites for more instructions on how to properly cite in MLA format: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/ and


E. You must proofread, and check your grammar, syntax, and punctuation. Should you incorporate long paragraphs, run-on sentences, capitalization errors, etc., any of these types of mistakes will have a negative effect on your grade.

F. Your paper must be turned in on December 7th in class, and should be taken very seriously, as it is worth 20% of your overall grade in the course. Please don’t rush through this assignment. Give yourself enough time to complete it well before the date it is due, because this is much more than a long opinion piece.

G. You must type your paper using the template included in the following page. Points will be lost if your paper fails to meet these parameters. I will only accept these assignments late or via email in the most extreme of circumstances. Should your late work be accepted, you will be docked one letter grade per day it is late.

<Student Name>

<Course Name>


<Paper Title>

Start text here. Indent all paragraphs, and be sure to use proper grammar, capitalization, and punctuation. Your introductory paragraph should include a brief intro. to the subject matter, as well as a clear thesis with a paper map to follow. The thesis is the aim of your paper. Such as “in this paper I will argue that …”. The paper map tells your reader how it is you will be conducting your argument. Essentially this is a brief description of how you will go about achieving your aim in the paper. It can be as easy as stating “first I will discuss the author’s position on this issue, and then I will introduce the shortcomings found in the supplementary author’s position throughout their text.”

Please remember that any time you refer to another person’s work, you must use proper MLA citation. This must be done whether you are directly quoting their work or whether you are referring to the ideas expressed in their argument. To properly cite their work, please use in-text citations as delineated on this website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/. You should cite the text by way of the author you are writing about, as opposed to the editors of the textbook we are using. For instance, if you are discussing an essay by William James, you should cite him like this: (James 263). Should you mention James’s name prior to quoting or mentioning his idea, you needn’t include his name in the parenthetical, you can simply include the page number by itself.

Please do not include headers in your paper. These take up space, and are unnecessary. You can include page numbers at the footer of each page, but just include the page number only. At the end of the paper you should include a Works Cited page that is separate from the rest of your paper. Here you will provide corresponding information to supplement your shorter in-text citations. A proper citation to accompany the James text mentioned above appear as follows:

Works Cited

James, William. “The Will to Believe.” Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology, 7th Ed., edited by Louis Pojman and Michael Rea, Cengage Learning, 2015, 578-587.

For more information on how to make citations on the Works Cited page, please see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06/.

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Answer And Discuss History Questions In Short Essay Answers (Use Book Voices Of Freedom -Eric Foner)

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1) Folt civil war, Mississippi black codes (use evidence from the documents,DOC 97, 96)”I have attached these documents” 

 discuss the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments and success failures of reconstruction, W.E.B Du bois, BT  Washington , Ida B Wells. 

2) Discuss the evolution of race relation over time.

3) WW2 input on U.S. , Why U.S. entered the war? Dr. Seuss what is his relationship with WW2? And discuss 

*CRM “civil right movement” 1950’s, 


4) – Gilded Age

*imperialism (War of 1898)


*progressive era common assessment

5) New Deal and competing ideas for economy, FDR vs Hoover.

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 Discussion 1: IntroductionSummary

Before we start the Western Civilization 1 course, it might be a good idea to take a few minutes to consider a few basic questions. Most likely, you already have a lot of knowledge and opinions about Western Civilization, so our introductory assignment simply asks you to reflect upon what you already know. Don’t worry too much about details since we’ll be discussing a lot of them during this course.

Please provide your response to the following discussion questions in 250-500 words. Then, save the file as either .doc or .docx format, and upload the document into the Upload Area for Discussion 1. Please use double-spacing, and include a standard header with your Name, Course, Assignment, and Date.

  • To begin with, how and when did Western Civilization first develop?
  • How is Western civilization similar to and/or different from the much older Eastern and African civilizations?
  • In what ways did ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, the Middle East and India influence the course of Western Civilization?
  • How were city-states and nations governed in ancient and medieval times?
  • What role did religion play in the development of Western Civilization?
  • How did the use of technology expand Europe’s global range of influence
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History Of Western Art: Renaissance To Contemporary

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  • Museum web:http://museumca.org
  • Completion of artwork analysis on your choice of a compelling artwork viewed in- person at a local museum. Minimum 4 full pages (no more than 5 full pages), typed, double-spaced, MLA format.
  • Include image of selected work (does not apply towards page count) Additionally, the bibliography does not apply towards page count.
  • Artwork must have been seen in person at a local museum. **Please see the list of museums on Canvas for more information** The selected artwork must reference the scope of the class: Western art (Europe / America) from the Renaissance (15th century) to the Contemporary (present). If traveling and planning on going to a museum outside of the Bay Area please contact me for approval.
  • Must submit one of the following forms of verification: Image of ticket stub/ receipt/ sticker/ or ‘selfie’ with artwork with the analysis. No other forms of verification will be accepted. Must submit verification for analysis to be graded. If it is a free day, save the sticker you receive and place it on a piece of paper with your name and take a photo of it. Essay will receive zero points without verification of a museum visit.
  1. The Assignment:
    The artwork analysis should largely be crafted through an analysis of the formal qualities (light, space, color and the relationships among them, etc.) of the artwork selected (primary source). Must integrate the vocabulary of formal analysis within the analysis.
    Touch on the following topics:
    • Introduce the artwork, the artist (only briefly introduce the artist. I am not looking for a
      paper written about the life of an artist), and location of artwork; consider the time it was made, societal conditions of the time in which the artist was working or the artwork was made, and any historical significance of the artwork. Consider the reasons why this artwork is compelling.
    • Interpret the work. What is it about? What is the meaning? Think about perspectives that are social, cultural, political, economic, or aesthetic. Get societal / historical information from the textbook and/or another source. Remember that only 1-3 scholarly secondary sources (books, periodicals) are permitted (books, periodicals).
    • Evaluate the artwork through extensive formal visual description (color, light, organization of forms, line, etc.) of the art object. Include description of appearance, subject matter (example: politics, religion, etc.) the medium the artist chose (oil paint, bronze sculpture, etc.) and significance to the work, scale (size), and briefly comment on what is satisfying and/or not satisfying about the work. (No statements such as: “I think”, “I feel,” etc.) **Please see the resource “How To Write About Artwork” for more information**

Art 3 Online – Art Analysis Instructions



Source material:

  • Ground observations in 1-3 secondary sources (books, periodicals).
  • Course textbook or book(s) from library.
  • If using Internet source material, only use museum websites, websites created by the
    artist or foundation, scholarly art magazines (For example: Art in America, Art Forum), reputable newspapers (for example: NY Times, Los Angles Times), or a gallery that represents the artist. No Wikipedia, dubious online sites, blogs, or peer-reviewed papers.
  • No large quotes (over 4 lines) from source material.
  • All source material must be acknowledged with an in-text citation within the body
    of the essay and included on a works cited page!
  • Please remember that biographical information and wall text from a museum
    used in the essay must also be cited to demonstrate the sources you have consulted. Please see the link on our Canvas page for MLA in-text citation assistance. See me during office hours for additional assistance.
  • No plagiarism. Essays submitted with any amount of plagiarized material will receive zero points. Please see course policy on “Academic Dishonesty”

Presentation of written material:
Please follow MLA guidelines. Art analysis must be in essay format, have an introduction with a thesis statement stating the purpose of your paper, development explaining the thesis of your essay, and a conclusion that serves as summary of your findings.
Format: The computerized typing must be the following: accepted fonts Times New Roman, Helvetica, Cambria, Calibri; 12 points in character; standard margins of 1” top and bottom and 1” left and right. Papers written in any other format are not acceptable. The written assignment will be graded on form as well as content so please be mindful of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.
Please note: Points are deducted for written material that does not meet the requirements as stated above, and for essays that are shorter than the required length.

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Between 1815 And 1860, There Were Many Events/Factors That Served To Either Pull The Country Together Or Push It Apart.

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PROMPT: Between 1815 and 1860, there were many events/factors that served to either pull the country together or push it apart. In this essay, analyze these push-pull factors.

You must also use at least four primary documents (either posted in blackboard or in American Yawp) as evidence.

Essay Checklist

Be sure to:

  • Have a strong rule of three thesis statement
  • Use “Rule of Three” style
  • Use a minimum of 4 primary source documents as evidence from http://www.americanyawp.com chapter 10-11-12-13-14
  • Have evidence/analysis from across the 1815-1860 time period
  • Discuss both uniting and dividing factors
  • Properly cite using footnotes in Turabian/Chicago style
  • Write 3-4 pages
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Modern Europe Fall 2018 – Final Exam Professor J. Lewis, Instructor

Instructions:  This exam is due no later than Wednesday, December 19 between 3-4pm in my office

in NAC 5/132. No paper will be accepted after that time and date. Emailed papers are not acceptable. Those who so wish may deliver it before that date in my mailbox at the History Department in NAC 5/144. Please note that the office closes at 4pm.

 Responses should be typed and double-spaced with one inch margins on each side, consisting of short-answers that address the questions or terms thoroughly.

 Given that this is a take-home exam with ample time to complete, students are expected to produce thorough, well-written responses.

Section I – Briefly identify in two or three sentences five of the individuals or terms below from chapters 10 and 14 of Edward Berenson’s Europe in the Modern World, Volume II. (2 points each)

Bloody Sunday of 1905 The Socialist Reolutionaries Alexander Kerensky The Kornilov Affair Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 1918 The Cheka The New Economic Policy The Great Purge Solidarity Trade Union Movement Perestroika The Velvet Revolution Boris Yelsin Commonwealth of Independent States

Section II – Answer each of the five questions below in a brief paragraph of five of six sentences based on Joseph Stalin’s Speech on The Tasks of Business Executives of 1931 found at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1931/02/04.htm (Questions 1-4 are 5 points each; question 5 is worth 10 points and should be more thoughtful and thorough)

1. What according to Stalin were the reasons why Soviet industry grew “only” 25% in 1930 rather than the 31-32% that his economic plan expected for in that year?

2. Stalin made the claim that the Soviet economy did not suffer from the problems of capitalism. What reasons does he given in support of this claim?

3. Stalin claimed that the “objective conditions” for rapid growth existed in the Soviet Union but what reasons did he give for why the growth targets of his economic plan were not being fully realized?

4.Identify some of the requirements and skills that Stalin claims managers must master to fully implement the expected targets for economic growth?https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1931/02/04.htm

5. Stalin claimed in this speech that “we are 50 to 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in 10 years or we will go under,” and that “those who fall behind get beaten.” Is there any truth for this claim or was it in your view merely Stalin’s way of justifying the ruthlessness by which he imposed a policy of rapid industrialization on the Soviet Union? (10pt. question)

Section III – Answer each of the questions below in five of six sentences based on Parts I, II and III of Stalin’s Results of the First Five Year Plan of 1933 found at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1933/01/07.htm (5 points each)

6. Stalin pointed out in his 1933 speech on The Results of the First Five-Year Plan that the Western media were at first deeply hostile to Soviet economic policy. How did this media respond to the results of that policy by 1933?

7. Identify some to the goals of the Five Year Plan as described by Stalin in Part II of his 1933 speech on the subject.

8. Stalin identified what he considered the key goals of agricultural policy and of military policy. What were they?

9. What was the role of heavy industry (steel, mining, etc.) in Stalin’s over-all plan for Soviet industrialization?

10. What does Stalin claim were the successes in promoting new industries of the Five Year Plan by 1933 and how does he say this compared with other countries by that year?

11. In Part III of this speech Stalin acknowledges that the Soviet Union was not producing sufficient consumer goods (clothes, shoes, etc.) for its people. How does he justify this failure?

12. Identify some to the goals Stalin set out for the Second Five Year Plan that was about to be launched after 1933.

Section IV – Answer both of the questions below in five or six sentences based on Nikita Khrushchev speech of 1956 outlining Stalin’s abuse of power and repression found at https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.asp (5 points each)

13. In 1956 the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claimed that Stalin’s concentration of power in his own hands and the “cult of the individual” that was created to justify his power violated the norms of Communist leadership. How did he attempt to prove such a claim?

14. Khrushchev also pointed out that Stalin accused many people of being so-called “enemies of thehttps://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1933/01/07.htmhttps://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.asp

people.” What according to Khrushchev were the consequences of this labeling of individuals?

Section V – Answer both of the questions below based on Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s 2009 interview about the end of European Communism found at https://www.thenation.com/article/gorbachev-1989/ (5 points each)

15. Many people have argued that the collapse of European Communism in the late 1980s-early 1990s was brought about by outside pressure such as U.S. pressure during the cold war, religious opposition mobilized by the election of John Paul II as the first Catholic Pope from a Communist country in 1978, or the military and financial costs to the Soviet Union during its intervention in the Afghanistan civil war of the 1980s? What is Gorbachev’s response to these claims that external rather than internal issues led to the fall of European Communism?

16. Gorbachev is extremely critical of Boris Yeltsin, his successor as President of Russia after the end of the Communist Regime. Why is he so hostile to his successor?

Note: the total point value of this exam is 95 points. Five points will be given free for a total of 100 points.https://www.thenation.com/article/gorbachev-1989/

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