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Part 3: Solution (70 points, 20%)
In 4-6 pages, describe your action plan for dealing with your Lot in Life (Your 16 year old comes into the house after attending a party, smelling of cigarettes and marijuana). As part of your solution you should explain how your research on the topic has guided your plan of action. Contact at least two local community (Prince Georges County, Maryland) agencies (not just Web sites) that can help provide information, training, or support for the problem. Include specifics on how to contact the agency, what services they have available, and how much these services cost. If you include WWW sources for your background research on this topic, review the guidelines about evaluating Web sources given earlier.
Describe any obstacles or challenges that may prevent your plan of action from being successful.
Conclude your paper with a reflection of why you chose this particular Lot in Life to study and how your research of the topic has influenced your views of parenting.
Your paper should have a cover sheet that lists your name, and the scenario you have chosen. Your paper should be double-spaced and use a standard font (e.g. Times New Roman, 12 pt). Be sure to include a reference list at the end of your Part 3 assignment.
The other two papers (Setting the Scene and Research) should be pasted in at the end of your solution paper.
Part 3 Grading Rubric:
|Clear plan of action articulated to solve the problem||15 pointsExcellent and detailed articulation of a plan of action to solve the problem||13 pointsGood plan of action articulated with some minor omissions or problems in clarity||11 pointsFair plan of action articulated with several minor omissions or problems in clarity||9 pointsPoor plan of action articulated with some major omissions or problems in clarity||0 pointsNo plan of action articulated|
|Information provided about at least 2 community agencies||15 pointsExcellent job identifying and describing at least 2 appropriate community agencies||13 pointsGood job identifying and describing at least 2 appropriate community agencies with some minor omissions or problems in clarity||11 pointsIdentifies and describes 1-2 appropriate community agencies with several minor omissions or problems in clarity||9 pointsIdentifies and describes 1-2 appropriate community agencies with several major omissions or problems in clarity||0 pointsDoes not identify any community agencies|
|Discussion of obstacles or challenges in implementing the plan of action||15 pointsExcellent and clear discussion of potential obstacles or challenges in implementing the plan of action||13 pointsGood and clear discussion of potential obstacles or challenges in implementing the plan of action, with some minor omissions or problems in clarity||11 pointsDiscusses potential obstacles or challenges, but several minor omissions or problems in clarity||9 pointsDiscusses potential obstacles or challenges, but several major omissions or problems in clarity||0 pointsDoes not discuss potential obstacles or challenges|
|Reflection and conclusion||15 pointsExcellent reflection of why topic was chosen and how researching the topic has influenced views of parenting||13 pointsGood reflection of why topic was chosen and how researching the topic has influenced views of parenting, with some minor omissions or problems in clarity||11 pointsFair reflection of why topic was chosen and how researching the topic has influenced views of parenting, with several minor omissions or problems in clarity||9 pointsPoor reflection of why topic was chosen and how researching the topic has influenced views of parenting, with several major omissions or problems in clarity||0 pointsNo reflection of why topic was chosen and how researching the topic has influenced views of parenting|
|Citations and References||5 pointsCorrect use of APA format for in-text citations and references||4 pointsMostly correct use of APA format for in-text citations and references||3 pointsSeveral errors in the use of APA format for in-text citations and references||2 pointsMany errors in the use of APA format for in-text citations and references, but evidence of some citation style||0 pointsNo citation style used|
|Correct submission format||5 pointsContains all of the following:Cover sheetReference listParts 1& 2 attachedCorrect page lengthCorrect spacing and font ||4 pointsContains 4 of the following:Cover sheetReference listParts 1 & 2 attachedCorrect page lengthCorrect spacing and font||3 pointsContains 3 of the following:Cover sheetReference listParts 1 & 2 attachedCorrect page lengthCorrect spacing and font||2 pointsContains 2 of the following:Cover sheetReference listParts 1 & 2 attachedCorrect page lengthCorrect spacing and font||0 pointsContains less than 2 of the following:Cover sheetReference listParts 1 & 2 attachedCorrect page lengthCorrect spacing and font|
Part 1: Setting the Scene (Done).
Your 16 year old comes into the house after attending a party, smelling of cigarettes and marijuana.
November 5, 2018
My 16-year-old son requested to attend a party with friends, and I allowed him to attend the party. He came home late and was avoiding contact with me, but after insisting that he tells me about the party, he was smelling cigarettes and marijuana. This was not the first time that he attended a party, but this was the first time that he came home smelling cigarette and marijuana. I felt disappointed, and that moment I did not know what to do so I asked him to get some rest, and we would talk the following morning. I pondered the whole night what was the issue and how did it come to this point and what I would do about the situation.
My spouse and I have always been very close to our son, and we are free in discussing issues, and thus I did not understand how it reached this point that he can smoke cigarette and marijuana. In this stage of his life, we have always been there for him to guide him navigate through adolescence successfully. We have consistently communicated our expectations as parents, and the rule has been clear. We allow him to hang out with friends and party with them. We know all his friends, and they seem to be nice kids, and that is why we allow him to hang out with them. The freedom we have given him comes with rules and meeting those rules is paramount since breaking those rules are accompanied with consequences.
This situation has presented various issues that needed consideration. One of the issues is talking about the difficult topics with our son. Irrespective of having an open and free communication environment, as parents we have always avoided the problematic topics such as drug use and sex. Another issue that needed consideration is peer influence. We might know our son’s friends, but we do not know who they are on their own. The manner we talk to our son regarding peer influence is an issue that needs exploration. As well, another issue is our son’s involvement in the goals we set for him. My spouse and I set expectations and goals for our son, and there is little input from him towards these goals, and this issue needs to be explored in its contribution to his current behavior.
The situation needs to be addressed to avoid future use of cigarette and marijuana and thus avoid the negative consequence of drug use. One of the solutions to the situation is talking with our son about drug use. Talking to him about drug use, detailing the reasons why it is not right to engage in drug use by illuminating negative consequence, would help our son understand why it is not healthy to smoke cigarette and marijuana. Another solution is to make it clear that drug use will not be tolerated and establish ramifications that will follow. However, punishing this behavior would damage the bond with our son and thus, acknowledging the efforts to correct this behavior would be another solution. As well, encouraging our son to input in the expectations and goals we set for him would enable us to understand our son better, his strengths, weakness, desires, and interests, and use them to help him overcome this behavior.
The plan of action would entail reestablishing a strong bond of trust with our son. This will require spending more time with our son and letting him know that he can talk to us about anything and we are always there for him. Also, rewarding his effort towards dropping this behavior would offer motivation to stop smoking cigarette and marihuana. This is a worrying behavior that our son has started, and thus there is a need to address the issue before it becomes an addition.
Part 2: Doing the Research (Done)
One of the greatest challenges of parenting is taking to teens regarding difficult subjects. In adolescence, the teens explore many things including sexuality and drug use, and these are difficult subjects to talk about with the teens. It is very hard for parents to explain these subjects. It feels hard to put into the right words the difficult subjects. However, in the age of technological advancements exposing teens to many things it is critical to face the challenge head-on and address the tough subjects. In the case of a 16-years-old teen coming to the house smelling cigarette and marijuana, several issues presented including the larger issue, reasons for concern, early warning behaviors, and ways of dealing with the issue while maintaining a close bond with the teen.
Cigarette and Marijuana co-use, a larger issue of concern
Despite studies indicating that cigarette smoking presents a major concern, offering a gateway to marijuana use and other illegal drugs and increases the use of marijuana, the co-use of cigarette and marijuana is a much more issue of concern. Given the increasing use of cigarette and marijuana among the teens, teens may see it as normal and moving with the trend as well as an acceptable behavior among the teens and this raises concern on how to talk to the teen about this issue. According to Ramo et al. (2013), cigarette and marijuana co-use occurs more often among teens. Ramo et al. (2013) further add that 35 percent of the cigarette smokers and marijuana users age between 16 and 25 years, almost thrice the rate of the general adult population.
With the states permitting cigarette smoking in non-public areas and the legalization of marijuana, it makes it even a greater issue. Cigarette smoking in the United States is permitted in the non-public area, and this has enhanced the view of teens on cigarette smoking as being not harmful. Many states in the United States have legalized Marijuana to some extent. According to Lynne-Landsman et al. (2013), this legalization has significantly diminished the perception of harm among the teens, and now the teens view marijuana as a harmless substance. This creates confusion among the parents on how to handle this issue. Thus, cigarette and marijuana co-use is a larger issue since the increasing use trend together with their legalization in the U.S presents present a concern among the parents on how to talk to the teens regarding this issue.
Reasons for concern
Cigarette and marijuana co-use my result in a decline in school performance and eventually may lead the teen dropping out of school. According to Ramo, Liu and Prochaska (2012), cigarette smoking reduces one’s academic performance due to the cigarette-related health issues that keeps one from full participation in school activities. A study by Patte, Qian and Leatherdale (2017) indicated that students who use marijuana are four times more prospective to skip classes, thrice likely to not complete their homework and twice less likely to value getting good grades than the non-marijuana users. Thus, the co-use of cigarette and marijuana would complicate the school performance further as noted by Subramaniam, McGlade and Yurgelun-Todd (2016) that cigarette and marihuana co-use affect the learning and memory brain functions thereby negatively impacting academic performance and contributing to high-school dropout rate among the teen users.
As well, cigarette and marijuana co-use presents a greater health risk and thus a concern. According to Ramo et al. (2012), as compared to exclusive tobacco or marijuana use, co-users experience great health risks. The health consequences of cigarette and marijuana co-use include respiratory health problems due to irritation of the lugs due to cigarette and marihuana smoke. Another health problem is increased heart rate which increases one’s risk of heart attack. Additionally, cigarette and marijuana co-use is accompanied by psychological problems including paranoia, hallucinations, depression, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis (Ramo et al., 2012).
Additionally, according to Meier and Hatsukami (2016), cigarette and marijuana co-use offers a pathway to other drug use and addiction. The teens using both cigarette and marijuana are more susceptible to using other drugs including cocaine as compared to exclusive cigarette or marijuana use. The co-use is linked with other dangerous behaviors including unprotected sex which may further complicate the teen’s life. Additionally, the cigarette and marijuana co-use increase the cigarette and marijuana dependence which may further lead to long-term health consequences (Meier and Hatsukami, 2016). Thus, the concern regarding the other drugs that the teen may start using and addiction present a greater concern regarding the teen’s current smoking and marijuana use.
Besides, it would attract legal penalties which may affect the teen. The federal law provides for cigarette purchase and uses for people above the age of 18. Further, the state and local laws prohibit the possession and consumption of cigarette for persons below the age of 18. As well, marijuana use is legalized for persons beyond the age of 21. Thus, since the teen in the case is just 16 years old, cigarette and marijuana use would attract legal fines and penalties associated with status offenses. Status offenses include acts which are criminal for children only and underage cigarette, and marijuana use are classified under status offenses. The legal penalties would range from fine to detention is a secure, locked facility.
Behavior that the adolescent was demonstrating (warning)
Some of the behaviors that the teen might have demonstrated that presented early warning but parents ignored includes early childhood aggressive behavior, poor impulse control, and low perception of dangers inherent in drug use. Studies have linked early childhood aggression to early drug use. According to Mathias et al. (2015), aggression is a major risk factor for substance use. Teens using illicit drugs have a history of aggressive behaviors. Engaging in early childhood aggression is a strong predictor of continued aggression, and thus teens with aggressive behaviors may engage in illicit drug use as an externalizing psychopathology expression (Mathias et al., 2015). As well, having aggressive behaviors may affiliate with deviant peers and thus increasing access to illicit drugs. Therefore, from the studies, it is clear that teen’s early childhood aggressive behavior is a contributor to the teen’s current cigarette and marijuana use.
Another prior warning behavior would be the poor impulse control. The failure to resist an impulse, temptation and urge would have been a predictor of substance use. Studies have linked impulsive behaviors to drug use and abuse. According to De Wit (2009), poor impulse control is a risk fa tor for experimenting drugs, problematic use of drugs, and failure to abstain from the use of drugs. The momentary increase in an individual’s poor impulse control impairs one’s ability to abstain from the use of drugs (De Wit, 2009). Thus, the teen’s impulsive behavior may have been an early warning of early cigarette and marijuana use due to an increased urge to experiment these drugs and use these drugs.
As well, low perception of dangers inherent in drug use may have been a predictor for cigarette and marijuana use. Studies have established that teens with a low perception of the dangers the use of drugs present to an individual increase one’s risk of using drugs (Lopes et al., 2014). Various mechanisms have contributed to this low perception including the policies. The law permits cigarette smoking, and together with the legalization of marijuana, this has changed the perception of the teens towards the dangers of cigarette and marijuana use in which the teen perceives cigarette and marihuana use as being not as harmful as people say (Lynne-Landsman et al., 2013).
Ways of approaching the issue without isolating the teen
Often, teen seems unapproachable and extremely uncomfortable about talking about personal issues including drug use. One of the ways to talk about cigarette and marijuana use is being clear about the values (Miller-Day, 2002). The parents should be clear about their values and stance on this issue. In addressing the values, it is important to let the teen know the values the parents stand for and encourage the teen to communicate their values. In that way, the parents and teens can understand each other. Another way is talking facts relating to cigarette and marijuana use (Holden, 2014). Offering facts would offer the teen an opportunity to have accurate information regarding cigarette and marijuana use and to explain the differing beliefs about the issue among people. It is important to let the teen know that people are allowed to have differing views, and they should be respected. This would encourage open dialogue thereby encouraging the teen to ask questions and seek clarification from parents on issues.
As well, according to Miller-Day (2002) practicing what the parent teach would also enforce trust between the teen and the parents. Some common values that the parents support include honesty, responsibility and respect for differences. Acting on these values is a powerful message to the teen. Additionally, practicing empathy will enable the parents to understand what the teen thinks and feel about cigarette and marijuana use (Miller-Day, 2002). This will enable the parents to share information and respond to questions that arise in a manner that will resonate with the belief system that the teen is developing. Encouraging a sense of pride is important as well. The teens deserve to feel loved and wanted (Holden, 2014). The parents should let the teen know that they are interested in what the teen think and feel about the issue and encourage the teen to share feelings so that the parents can correct misinformation and reinforce values
Parenting is not an easy job and parents should discuss difficult topics with their children. One of the difficult topics is cigarette and marijuana use. This topic presents various topics including the larger issue, reasons that the topic should be of concern, behaviors that predict the use of cigarette and marijuana in a teen, and ways of handling this topic without alienating the teen. Parents should ensure that they talk about the difficult topics with their children to guide them navigate through adolescence successfully.
De Wit, H. (2009). Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes. Addiction biology, 14(1), 22-31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3640851/
Holden, G. W. (2014). Parenting: A dynamic perspective. Sage Publications.
Lopes, G. T., Bernardes, M. M. R., Ribeiro, A. P. L. P., Belchior, P. C., Delphim, L. M., & Ferreira, R. D. S. (2014). Perceptions of adolescents regarding drug use/addiction: theater as the pedagogical strategy. Escola Anna Nery, 18(2), 202-208. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1414-81452014000200202&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en
Lynne-Landsman, S. D., Livingston, M. D., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2013). Effects of state medical marijuana laws on adolescent marijuana use. American journal of public health, 103(8), 1500-1506.
Mathias, C. W., Duffing, T. M., Ashley, A., Charles, N. E., Lake, S. L., Ryan, S. R., … & Dougherty, D. M. (2015). Aggression as a predictor of early substance use initiation among youth with family histories of substance use disorders. Addictive disorders & their treatment, 14(4), 230-240 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704787/
Meier, E., & Hatsukami, D. K. (2016). A review of the additive health risk of cannabis and tobacco co-use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 166, 6-12.
Miller-Day, M. A. (2002). Parent-adolescent communication about alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17(6), 604-616. https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/33664106/Parent-Adolescent_Communication_about_Alcohol__Tobacco__and_Other_Druguse.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1542794754&Signature=ZSvjK2rat5UwT3FOXKdzpO0tCvE%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DParent-Adolescent_Communication_about_Al.pdf
Patte, K. A., Qian, W., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2017). Marijuana and alcohol use as predictors of academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis among youth in the COMPASS study. Journal of school health, 87(5), 310-318.
Ramo, D. E., Delucchi, K. L., Hall, S. M., Liu, H., & Prochaska, J. J. (2013). Marijuana and tobacco co-use in young adults: patterns and thoughts about use. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 74(2), 301-310. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3568169/
Ramo, D. E., Liu, H., & Prochaska, J. J. (2012). Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of their co-use. Clinical psychology review, 32(2), 105-121.
Subramaniam, P., McGlade, E., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2016). Comorbid cannabis and tobacco use in adolescents and adults. Current addiction reports, 3(2), 182-188.
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