Each activity below has a specific purpose in epidemiological research.

Question 10

Based on these findings, the investigators concluded that there was an association between consumption of soft drinks and mortality from diabetes. A potential flaw in this reasoning is that it is not known if the people who died from diabetes consumed soft drinks.


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Question 11

Each activity below has a specific purpose in epidemiological research. Match each activity in the first column with its corresponding purpose in the second column by selecting the correct letter. Each activity has only one correct answer.



Conduct screening

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Blind/mask study staff

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Include a large sample size

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Use matching

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Decreases confounding

Decreases interviewer bias

Increases statistical stability

Improves survival

Question 12

The following information applies to questions 12-14.

An article was recently published on the relationship between caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight. The article was based on the results of a case-control study. As you know, caffeine is present in a wide variety of beverages, foods, and medications, including coffee, tea, and colas. The following statements have been taken from the introduction and results sections of the article. Select the Hill’s guideline that best describes each statement.

Caffeine exposure during pregnancy could have a harmful effect because caffeine interferes with cell division, metabolism, and growth.





Biological plausibility

Strength of the association

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