Microbiology Research Example Paper

Microbiology Research Example Paper



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Question 1

Antigens have the ability to stimulate an immune system. Due to their different surface features, they result in specific responses. The primary immune system occurs when an antigen comes into contact with the immune system for the first time. During this specific time, the immune system has to come up with a way recognizing the antigen. Through this, it is able to make an antibody against the antigen and finally produces memory lymphocytes. Memory lymphocytes are very important as they recognize an antigen introduced into the body during a prior infection. Secondary immune response on the other hand occurs when an individual is exposed to the same antigen for the second, third and fourth times. At this given point, the body is already aware of this antigen. Therefore, immunological memory is established enabling the immune system to start making antibodies instantly. The initial response to a vaccine is similar to that of the primary response upon first exposure to a pathogen. However, the purpose of vaccines is to prime the body so that when an individual is exposed to antigens, their immune system is able to respond rapidly and hence destroying the pathogen before it causes disease.

Question 2

Major histocompatibility complex is a group of genes that code for proteins found on the surface of cells that assist the immune system in recognizing foreign materials. These proteins are found in all higher vertebrates. There exists two types of MHC proteins, class one and two. Class one molecules lengthen the membrane of almost all cells in an organism while class two molecules are restricted to cells of the immune system. MHC molecules are very important as they enable lymphocytes to detect cells capable of causing infectious diseases. Besides, the lymphocyte recognizes foreign substances attached to the MHC molecule and binds it thus stimulating an immune system. Lack of production of MHC molecules would mean that the immune system of the person involved is weak. Such a person is prone to diseases causing infections and thus his health is I danger. Additionally, if such a person gets infected, he could easily lose his life as his body lacks ability to fight diseases.

Question 3

T cells are very important in the body of any vertebrate.As part of the immune response, they have the capability to recognize and get rid of infected cells. They are also helpful to other significant cells due to their ability to produce antibodies.  In some cases, the T cells, enhances the immune response and especially after elimination of an infection. Additionally, most of the adaptive immune responses require these cells for them to be initiated. Indeed, these cells are also very important when it comes to elimination of pathogens that are found within cells.

Question 4

Dendritic cells are very basic when it comes to the initiation of primary immune responses. These cells are very important due to their ability to stimulate naïve T cells hence very essential in the production of adaptive immunity. They are also play a significant role in influencing how cells respond to the innate immune system. It also creates an opportunity for the production and development appropriate vaccinations which enables the body to develop secondary immune system thus responding rapidly to germs causing diseases.

Macrophages play a substantial role in protecting the body against foreign substance that would result to diseases. They play the role of a defender due to their ability to engulf phagocytosis from parasites and microbes. They are capable of regulating lymphocyte initiation and production and also vital in the activation of T lymphocytes by antigens. In addition, macrophages kill consumedmicroorganisms.

Neutrophils plays a substantial roll in killing of germs causing diseases. Due to their abundance, they are capable of combating and killing any foreign material which would otherwise weaken the immune system and thus expose the body to various diseases.  Neutrophils are also heavily armed. They contain natural antibiotics capable of killing and destroying any foreign material in various ways. In addition, neutrophils are the first cells to reach any infected part of the body. As a result, they keep the body safe until a sturdy immune system is adapted by the body. Finally, they are ready to give their lives so long as the body remains from diseases and infections.

Mast cells play a significant role in defending the body against infectious diseases.  For instance, they are well positioned to serve as immune sentinel to respond directly to foreign materials capable of causing diseases and also warns other tissues so that they can innate adaptive immune system. They are also actively involved in killing of organisms by phagocytosis.

The roles of eosinophil varies significantly as some are very similar to those of other blood cells.  However, they are actively involved in making permanent pathologic changes, modulating inflammatory responses and participates in instant allergic reactions.

Natural killer cells, play a substantial role in the host rejection of both tumour and cells infected with virus.  They prevent and contain virus causing diseases while the adaptive immune response generates certain T cells capable of combating the disease in question.




Microbiology Research Example Paper

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